Publications by Julien Devriendt

Magnetogenesis at Cosmic Dawn: Tracing the Origins of Cosmic Magnetic Fields


H Katz, S Martin-Alvarez, J Devriendt, A Slyz, T Kimm

Despite their ubiquity, the origin of cosmic magnetic fields remains unknown. Various mechanisms have been proposed for their existence including primordial fields generated by inflation, or amplification and injection by compact astrophysical objects. Separating the potential impact of each magnetogenesis scenario on the magnitude and orientation of the magnetic field and their impact on gas dynamics may give insight into the physics that magnetised our Universe. In this work, we demonstrate that because the induction equation and solenoidal constraint are linear with $B$, the contribution from different sources of magnetic field can be separated in cosmological magnetohydrodynamics simulations and their evolution and influence on the gas dynamics can be tracked. Exploiting this property, we develop a magnetic field tracer algorithm for cosmological simulations that can track the origin and evolution of different components of the magnetic field. We present a suite of cosmological magnetohydrodynamical RAMSES simulations that employ this algorithm where the primordial field strength is varied to determine the contributions of the primordial and supernovae-injected magnetic fields to the total magnetic energy as a function of time and spatial location. We find that, for our specific model, the supernova-injected fields rarely penetrate far from haloes, despite often dominating the total magnetic energy in the simulations. The magnetic energy density from the supernova-injected field scales with density with a power-law slope steeper than 4/3 and often dominates the total magnetic energy inside of haloes. However, the star formation rates in our simulations are not affected by the presence of magnetic fields, for the ranges of primordial field strengths examined. These simulations represent a first demonstration of the magnetic field tracer algorithm (abridged).

Modelling baryonic feedback for survey cosmology


NE Chisari, AJ Mead, S Joudaki, P Ferreira, A Schneider, J Mohr, T Tröster, D Alonso, IG McCarthy, S Martin-Alvarez, JULIEN Devriendt, A Slyz, MPV Daalen

Observational cosmology in the next decade will rely on probes of the distribution of matter in the redshift range between $0

Connecting the cosmic web to the spin of dark halos: implications for galaxy formation

ArXiv (0)

S Codis, C Pichon, J Devriendt, A Slyz, D Pogosyan, Y Dubois, T Sousbie

We investigate the alignment of the spin of dark matter halos relative (i) to the surrounding large-scale filamentary structure, and (ii) to the tidal tensor eigenvectors using the Horizon 4pi dark matter simulation which resolves over 43 million dark matter halos at redshift zero. We detect a clear mass transition: the spin of dark matter halos above a critical mass tends to be perpendicular to the closest filament, and aligned with the intermediate axis of the tidal tensor, whereas the spin of low-mass halos is more likely to be aligned with the closest filament. Furthermore, this critical mass of 5 10^12 is redshift-dependent and scales as (1+z)^-2.5. We propose an interpretation of this signal in terms of large-scale cosmic flows. In this picture, most low-mass halos are formed through the winding of flows embedded in misaligned walls; hence they acquire a spin parallel to the axis of the resulting filaments forming at the intersection of these walls. On the other hand, more massive halos are typically the products of later mergers along such filaments, and thus they acquire a spin perpendicular to this direction when their orbital angular momentum is converted into spin. We show that this scenario is consistent with both the measured excess probabilities of alignment w.r.t. the eigen-directions of the tidal tensor, and halo merger histories. On a more qualitative level, it also seems compatible with 3D visualization of the structure of the cosmic web as traced by "smoothed" dark matter simulations or gas tracer particles. Finally, it provides extra support to the disc forming paradigm presented by Pichon et al (2011) as it extends it by characterizing the geometry of secondary infall at high redshift.

Jet-regulated cooling catastrophe

ArXiv (0)

Y Dubois, J Devriendt, A Slyz, R Teyssier

We present the first implementation of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback in the form of momentum driven jets in an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) cosmological resimulation of a galaxy cluster. The jets are powered by gas accretion onto Super Massive Black Holes (SMBHs) which also grow by mergers. Throughout its formation, the cluster experiences different dynamical states: both a morphologically perturbed epoch at early times and a relaxed state at late times allowing us to study the different modes of BH growth and associated AGN jet feedback. BHs accrete gas efficiently at high redshift (z>2), significantly pre-heating proto-cluster halos. Gas-rich mergers at high redshift also fuel strong, episodic jet activity, which transports gas from the proto-cluster core to its outer regions. At later times, while the cluster relaxes, the supply of cold gas onto the BHs is reduced leading to lower jet activity. Although the cluster is still heated by this activity as sound waves propagate from the core to the virial radius, the jets inefficiently redistribute gas outwards and a small cooling flow develops, along with low-pressure cavities similar to those detected in X-ray observations. Overall, our jet implementation of AGN feedback quenches star formation quite efficiently, reducing the stellar content of the central cluster galaxy by a factor 3 compared to the no AGN case. It also dramatically alters the shape of the gas density profile, bringing it in close agreement with the beta model favoured by observations, producing quite an isothermal galaxy cluster for gigayears in the process. However, it still falls short in matching the lower than Universal baryon fractions which seem to be commonplace in observed galaxy clusters.

Influence of AGN jets on the magnetized ICM

ArXiv (0)

Y Dubois, J Devriendt, A Slyz, J Silk

Galaxy clusters are the largest structures for which there is observational evidence of a magnetised medium. Central cores seem to host strong magnetic fields ranging from a few 0.1 microG up to several 10 microG in cooling flow clusters. Numerous clusters harbor central powerful AGN which are thought to prevent cooling flows in some clusters. The influence of such feedback on the magnetic field remains unclear: does the AGN-induced turbulence compensate the loss of magnetic amplification within a cool core? And how is this turbulence sustained over several Gyr? Using high resolution magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of the self-regulation of a radiative cooling cluster, we study for the first time the evolution of the magnetic field within the central core in the presence of a powerful AGN jet. It appears that the jet-induced turbulence strongly amplifies the magnetic amplitude in the core beyond the degree to which it would be amplified by pure compression in the gravitational field of the cluster. The AGN produces a non-cooling core and increases the magnetic field amplitude in good agreement with microG field observations.

The impact of TP-AGB stars on hierarchical galaxy formation models

ArXiv (0)

C Tonini, C Maraston, J Devriendt, D Thomas, J Silk

The spectro-photometric properties of galaxies in galaxy formation models are obtained by combining the predicted history of star formation and mass accretion with the physics of stellar evolution through stellar population models. In the recent literature, significant differences have emerged regarding the implementation of the Thermally-Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch phase of stellar evolution. The emission in the TP-AGB phase dominates the bolometric and near-IR spectrum of intermediate-age (~1 Gyr) stellar populations, hence it is crucial for the correct modeling of the galaxy luminosities and colours. In this paper for the first time, we incorporate a full prescription of the TP-AGB phase in a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We find that the inclusion of the TP-AGB in the model spectra dramatically alters the predicted colour-magnitude relation and its evolution with redshift. When the TP-AGB phase is active, the rest-frame V-K galaxy colours are redder by almost 2 magnitudes in the redshift range z~2-3 and by 1 magnitude at z~1. Very red colours are produced in disk galaxies, so that the V-K colour distributions of disk and spheroids are virtually undistinguishable at low redshifts. We also find that the galaxy K-band emission is more than 1 magnitude higher in the range z~1-3. This may alleviate the difficulties met by the hierarchical clustering scenario in predicting the red galaxy population at high redshifts. The comparison between simulations and observations have to be revisited in the light of our results.

Accretion, feedback and galaxy bimodality: a comparison of the GalICS semi-analytic model and cosmological SPH simulations

ArXiv (0)

A Cattaneo, J Blaizot, DH Weinberg, S Colombi, R Dave, J Devriendt, B Guiderdoni, N Katz, D Keres

We compare the galaxy population of an SPH simulation to those predicted by the GalICS semi-analytic model and a stripped down version without supernova and AGN feedback. The SPH simulation and the no-feedback GalICS model make similar predictions for the baryonic mass functions of galaxies and for the dependence of these mass functions on environment and redshift. The two methods also make similar predictions for the galaxy content of dark matter haloes as a function of halo mass and for the gas accretion history of galaxies. Both the SPH and no-feedback GalICS models predict a bimodal galaxy population at z=0. The "red'' sequence of gas poor, old galaxies is populated mainly by satellite systems while, contrary to observations, the central galaxies of massive haloes lie on the "blue'' star-forming sequence as a result of continuing hot gas accretion at late times. Furthermore, both models overpredict the observed baryonic mass function, especially at the high mass end. In the full GalICS model, supernova-driven outflows reduce the masses of low and intermediate mass galaxies by about a factor of two. AGN feedback suppresses gas cooling in large haloes, producing a sharp cut-off in the baryonic mass function and moving the central galaxies of these massive haloes to the red sequence. Our results imply that the observational failings of the SPH simulation and the no-feedback GalICS model are a consequence of missing input physics rather than computational inaccuracies, that truncating gas accretion by satellite galaxies automatically produces a bimodal galaxy distribution with a red sequence, but that explaining the red colours of the most massive galaxies requires a mechanism like AGN feedback that suppresses the accretion onto central galaxies in large haloes.

The elliptical colour-magnitude relation as a discriminant between the monolithic and merger paradigms: the importance of progenitor bias

ArXiv (0)

S Kaviraj, JEG Devriendt, I Ferreras, SK Yi

The colour-magnitude relation (CMR) of cluster ellipticals has been widely used to constrain their star formation histories (SFHs) and to discriminate between the monolithic and merger paradigms of elliptical galaxy formation. We investigate the elliptical CMR predicted in the merger paradigm by using a LCDM hierarchical merger model. We first highlight sections of the literature which indicate that the traditional use of fixed apertures to derive colours gives a distorted view of the CMR due to the presence of colour gradients in galaxies. Fixed aperture observations make the CMR steeper and tighter than it really is. We then show that the star formation history (SFH) of cluster ellipticals predicted by the model is quasi-monolithic, with over 95 percent of the total stellar mass formed before a redshift of 1. The quasi-monolithic SFH produces a predicted CMR that agrees well at all redshifts with its observed counterpart once the fixed aperture effect is removed. More importantly, we present arguments to show that the elliptical-only CMR can be used to constrain the SFHs of present-day cluster ellipticals only if we believe a priori in the monolithic collapse model. It is not a meaningful tool for constraining the SFH in the merger paradigm, because a progressively larger fraction of the progenitor set of present-day cluster ellipticals is contained in late-type star forming systems at higher redshift, which cannot be ignored when deriving the SFHs. Hence, the elliptical-only CMR is not a useful discriminant between the two competing theories of elliptical galaxy evolution.

Turbulent Ambipolar Diffusion: Numerical Studies in 2D

ArXiv (0)

F Heitsch, EG Zweibel, AD Slyz, JEG Devriendt

Under ideal MHD conditions the magnetic field strength should be correlated with density in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, observations indicate that this correlation is weak. Ambipolar diffusion can decrease the flux-to-mass ratio in weakly ionized media; however, it is generally thought to be too slow to play a significant role in the ISM except in the densest molecular clouds. Turbulence is often invoked in astrophysical problems to increase transport rates above the (very slow) laminar values predicted by kinetic theory. We describe a series of numerical experiments addressing the problem of turbulent transport of magnetic fields in weakly ionized gases. We show, subject to various geometrical and physical restrictions, that turbulence in a weakly ionized medium rapidly diffuses the magnetic flux to mass ratio through the buildup of appreciable ion-neutral drifts on small scales. These results are applicable to the fieldstrength - density correlation in the ISM, as well as the merging of flux systems such as protostar and accretion disk fields or protostellar jets with ambient matter, and the vertical transport of galactic magnetic fields.

The Impact of Galaxy Formation on the Diffuse Background Radiation

ArXiv (0)

J Silk, J Devriendt

The far infrared background is a sink for the hidden aspects of galaxy formation. At optical wavelengths, ellipticals and spheroids are old, even at $z \sim 1.$ Neither the luminous formation phase nor their early evolution is seen in the visible. We infer that ellipticals and, more generally, most spheroids must have formed in dust-shrouded starbursts. In this article, we show how separate tracking of disk and spheroid star formation enables us to infer that disks dominate near the peak in the cosmic star formation rate at $z \lapproxeq 2$ and in the diffuse ultraviolet/optical/infrared background, whereas spheroid formation dominates the submillimetre background.

Caught in the rhythm II: Competitive alignments of satellites with their inner halo and central galaxy


C Welker, C Power, C Pichon, Y Dubois, J Devriendt, S Codis

The anisotropic distribution of satellites around the central galaxy of their host halo is well-documented. However the relative impact of baryons and dark matter in shaping this distribution is still debated. Using the simulation Horizon-AGN, the angular distribution of satellite galaxies with respect to their central counterpart and halo is quantified. Below one Rvir, satellites cluster more strongly in the plane of the central, rather than merely tracing the shape of their host halo. This is due to the increased isotropy of inner haloes acquired through their inside-out assembly in vorticity-rich flows along the cosmic web. While the effect of centrals decreases with distance, halos' triaxiality increases, impacting more and more the satellite's distribution. Effects become comparable just outside one virial radius. Above this scale, the filamentary infall also impacts the satellites distribution, dominating above two virial radii. The central's morphology plays a governing role: the alignment w.r.t. the central plane is four times stronger in haloes hosting stellar discs than in spheroids. But the impact of the galactic plane decreases for lower satellite-to-central mass ratios, suggesting this might not hold for dwarf satellites of the Local group. The orientation of the Milky-Way's satellites traces their cosmic filament, their level of coplanarity is consistent with systems of similar mass and cosmic location in Horizon-AGN. However, the strong impact of galactic planes in massive groups and clusters bounds the likelihood of finding a relaxed region where satellites can be used to infer halo shape. The minor-to-major axis ratios for haloes with log(M0/Msun)>13.5 is underestimated by 10%. This error soars quickly to 30-40% for individual halo measurements.