Publications by Stephen Clark

Capturing the re-entrant behaviour of one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

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M Pino, J Prior, SR Clark

The Bose Hubbard model (BHM) is an archetypal quantum lattice system exhibiting a quantum phase transition between its superfluid (SF) and Mott-insulator (MI) phase. Unlike in higher dimensions the phase diagram of the BHM in one dimension possesses regions in which increasing the hopping amplitude can result in a transition from MI to SF and then back to a MI. This type of re-entrance is well known in classical systems like liquid crystals yet its origin in quantum systems is still not well understood. Moreover, this unusual re-entrant character of the BHM is not easily captured in approximate analytical or numerical calculations. Here we study in detail the predictions of three different and widely used approximations; a multi-site mean-field decoupling, a finite-sized cluster calculation, and a real-space renormalization group (RG) approach. It is found that mean-field calculations do not reproduce re-entrance while finite-sized clusters display a precursor to re-entrance. Here we show for the first time that RG does capture the re-entrant feature and constitutes one of the simplest approximation able to do so. The differing abilities of these approaches reveals the importance of describing short-ranged correlations relevant to the kinetic energy of a MI in a particle-number symmetric way.

Quantifying the Nonclassicality of Operations

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S Meznaric, SR Clark, A Datta

Deep insight can be gained into the nature of nonclassical correlations by studying the quantum operations that create them. Motivated by this we propose a measure of nonclassicality of a quantum operation utilizing the relative entropy to quantify its commutativity with the completely dephasing operation. We show that our measure of nonclassicality is a sum of two independent contributions, the generating power -- its ability to produce nonclassical states out of classical ones, and the distinguishing power -- its usefulness to a classical observer for distinguishing between classical and nonclassical states. Each of these effects can be exploited individually in quantum protocols. We further show that our measure leads to an interpretation of quantum discord as the difference in superdense coding capacities between a quantum state and the best classical state when both are produced at a source that makes a classical error during transmission.

Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits

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TH Johnson, JD Biamonte, SR Clark, D Jaksch

Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in $\mathrm{P}$ this would imply the collapse of the complexity hierarchy $\mathrm{P} \subseteq \mathrm{NP} \subseteq # \mathrm{P}$.

Ab initio derivation of Hubbard models for cold atoms in optical lattices

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R Walters, G Cotugno, TH Johnson, SR Clark, D Jaksch

We derive ab initio local Hubbard models for several optical lattice potentials of current interest, including the honeycomb and Kagom\'{e} lattices, verifying their accuracy on each occasion by comparing the interpolated band structures against the originals. To achieve this, we calculate the maximally-localized generalized Wannier basis by implementing the steepest-descent algorithm of Marzari and Vanderbilt [N. Marzari and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. B 56, 12847 (1997)] directly in one and two dimensions. To avoid local minima we develop an initialization procedure that is both robust and requires no prior knowledge of the optimal Wannier basis. The MATLAB code that implements our full procedure is freely available online at

Dephasing enhanced transport in nonequilibrium strongly correlated quantum systems

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JJ Mendoza-Arenas, T Grujic, D Jaksch, SR Clark

A key insight from recent studies is that noise, such as dephasing, can improve the efficiency of quantum transport by suppressing coherent single-particle interference effects. However, it is not yet clear whether dephasing can enhance transport in an interacting many-body system. Here, we address this question by analyzing the transport properties of a boundary driven spinless fermion chain with nearest-neighbor interactions subject to bulk dephasing. The many-body nonequilibrium stationary state is determined using large-scale matrix product simulations of the corresponding quantum master equation. We find dephasing enhanced transport only in the strongly interacting regime, where it is shown to induce incoherent transitions bridging the gap between bound dark states and bands of mobile eigenstates. The generic nature of the transport enhancement is illustrated by a simple toy model, which contains the basic elements required for its emergence. Surprisingly, the effect is significant even in the linear response regime of the full system, and it is predicted to exist for any large and finite chain. The response of the system to dephasing also establishes a signature of an underlying nonequilibrium phase transition between regimes of transport degradation and enhancement. The existence of this transition is shown not to depend on the integrability of the model considered. As a result, dephasing enhanced transport is expected to persist in more realistic nonequilibrium strongly correlated systems.

Algebraically contractible topological tensor network states

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SJ Denny, JD Biamonte, D Jaksch, SR Clark

We adapt the bialgebra and Hopf relations to expose internal structure in the ground state of a Hamiltonian with $Z_2$ topological order. Its tensor network description allows for exact contraction through simple diagrammatic rewrite rules. The contraction property does not depend on specifics such as geometry, but rather originates from the non-trivial algebraic properties of the constituent tensors. We then generalise the resulting tensor network from a spin-1/2 lattice to a class of exactly contractible states on spin-S degrees of freedom, yielding the most efficient tensor network description of finite Abelian lattice gauge theories. We gain a new perspective on these states as examples of two-dimensional quantum states with algebraically contractible tensor network representations. The introduction of local perturbations to the network is shown to reduce the von Neumann entropy of string-like regions, creating an unentangled sub-system within the bulk in a certain limit. We also show how perturbations induce finite-range correlations in this system. This class of tensor networks is readily translated onto any lattice, and we differentiate between the physical consequences of bipartite and non-bipartite lattices on the properties of the corresponding quantum states. We explicitly show this on the hexagonal, square, kagome and triangular lattices.

Re-entrance and entanglement in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

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M Pino, J Prior, AM Somoza, D Jaksch, SR Clark

Re-entrance is a novel feature where the phase boundaries of a system exhibit a succession of transitions between two phases A and B, like A-B-A-B, when just one parameter is varied monotonically. This type of re-entrance is displayed by the 1D Bose Hubbard model between its Mott insulator (MI) and superfluid phase as the hopping amplitude is increased from zero. Here we analyse this counter-intuitive phenomenon directly in the thermodynamic limit by utilizing the infinite time-evolving block decimation algorithm to variationally minimize an infinite matrix product state (MPS) parameterized by a matrix size chi. Exploiting the direct restriction on the half-chain entanglement imposed by fixing chi, we determined that re-entrance in the MI lobes only emerges in this approximate when chi >= 8. This entanglement threshold is found to be coincident with the ability an infinite MPS to be simultaneously particle-number symmetric and capture the kinetic energy carried by particle-hole excitations above the MI. Focussing on the tip of the MI lobe we then applied, for the first time, a general finite-entanglement scaling analysis of the infinite order Kosterlitz-Thouless critical point located there. By analysing chi's up to a very moderate chi = 70 we obtained an estimate of the KT transition as t_KT = 0.30 +/- 0.01, demonstrating the how a finite-entanglement approach can provide not only qualitative insight but also quantitatively accurate predictions.

Controllable Finite-Momenta Dynamical Quasicondensation in the Periodically Driven One-Dimensional Fermi-Hubbard Model

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MW Cook, SR Clark

In the strongly interacting limit of the Hubbard model localized double-occupancies form effective hard-core bosonic excitations, called a doublons, which are long-lived due to energy conservation. Using time-dependent density-matrix renormalisation group we investigate numerically the dynamics of doublons arising from the sudden expansion of a spatially confined band-insulating state in one spatial dimension. By analysing the occupation scaling of the natural orbitals within the many-body state, we show that doublons dynamically quasicondense at the band edges, consistent with the spontaneous emergence of an eta-quasicondensate. Building on this, we study the effect of periodically driving the system during the expansion. Floquet analysis reveals that doublon-hopping and doublon-repulsion are strongly renormalised by the drive, breaking the eta-SU(2) symmetry of the Hubbard model. Numerical simulation of the driven expansion dynamics demonstrate that the momentum in which doublons quasicondense can be controlled by the driving amplitude. These results point to new pathways for engineering non-equilibrium condensates in fermionic cold-atom experiments and are potentially relevant to driven solid-state systems.