# Publications by John Chalker

## Percolation in Fock space as a proxy for many-body localisation

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society (0)

We study classical percolation models in Fock space as proxies for the quantum many-body localisation (MBL) transition. Percolation rules are defined for two models of disordered quantum spin-chains using their microscopic quantum Hamiltonians and the topologies of the associated Fock-space graphs. The percolation transition is revealed by the statistics of Fock-space cluster sizes, obtained by exact enumeration for finite-sized systems. As a function of disorder strength, the typical cluster size shows a transition from a volume law in Fock space to sub-volume law, directly analogous to the behaviour of eigenstate participation entropies across the MBL transition. Finite-size scaling analyses for several diagnostics of cluster size statistics yield mutually consistent critical properties. We show further that local observables averaged over Fock-space clusters also carry signatures of the transition, with their behaviour across it in direct analogy to that of corresponding eigenstate expectation values across the MBL transition. The Fock-space clusters can be explored under a mapping to kinetically constrained models. Dynamics within this framework likewise show the ergodicity-breaking transition via Monte Carlo averaged local observables, and yield critical properties consistent with those obtained from both exact cluster enumeration and analytic results derived in our recent work [arXiv:1812.05115]. This mapping allows access to system sizes two orders of magnitude larger than those accessible in exact enumerations. Simple physical pictures based on freezing of local real-space segments of spins are also presented, and shown to give values for the critical disorder strength and correlation length exponent $\nu$ consistent with numerical studies.

## Spectral statistics in spatially extended chaotic quantum many-body systems

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (0)

## Length Distributions in Loop Soups

ArXiv (0)

Statistical lattice ensembles of loops in three or more dimensions typically have phases in which the longest loops fill a finite fraction of the system. In such phases it is natural to ask about the distribution of loop lengths. We show how to calculate moments of these distributions using $CP^{n-1}$ or $RP^{n-1}$ and O(n) $\sigma$ models together with replica techniques. The resulting joint length distribution for macroscopic loops is Poisson-Dirichlet with a parameter $\theta$ fixed by the loop fugacity and by symmetries of the ensemble. We also discuss features of the length distribution for shorter loops, and use numerical simulations to test and illustrate our conclusions.

## Relaxation in driven integer quantum Hall edge states

ArXiv (0)

A highly non-thermal electron distribution is generated when quantum Hall edge states originating from sources at different potentials meet at a quantum point contact. The relaxation of this distribution to a stationary form as a function of distance downstream from the contact has been observed in recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 056803 (2010)]. Here we present an exact treatment of a minimal model for the system at filling factor \nu=2, with results that account well for the observations.

## Spin quantum Hall effect and plateau transitions in multilayer network models

ArXiv (0)

We study the spin quantum Hall effect and transitions between Hall plateaus in quasi two-dimensional network models consisting of several coupled layers. Systems exhibiting the spin quantum Hall effect belong to class C in the symmetry classification for Anderson localisation, and for network models in this class there is an established mapping between the quantum problem and a classical one involving random walks. This mapping permits numerical studies of plateau transitions in much larger samples than for other symmetry classes, and we use it to examine localisation in systems consisting of $n$ weakly coupled layers. Standard scaling ideas lead one to expect $n$ distinct plateau transitions, but in the case of the unitary symmetry class this conclusion has been questioned. Focussing on a two-layer model, we demonstrate that there are two separate plateau transitions, with the same critical properties as in a single-layer model, even for very weak interlayer coupling.

## Multiparticle interference in electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers

ArXiv (0)

We study theoretically electronic Mach-Zehnder interferometers built from integer quantum Hall edge states, showing that the results of recent experiments can be understood in terms of multiparticle interference effects. These experiments probe the visibility of Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in differential conductance as an interferometer is driven out of equilibrium by an applied bias, finding a lobe pattern in visibility as a function of voltage. We calculate the dependence on voltage of the visibility and the phase of AB oscillations at zero temperature, taking into account long range interactions between electrons in the same edge for interferometers operating at a filling fraction $\nu=1$. We obtain an exact solution via bosonization for models in which electrons interact only when they are inside the interferometer. This solution is non-perturbative in the tunneling probabilities at quantum point contacts. The results match observations in considerable detail provided the transparency of the incoming contact is close to one-half: the variation in visibility with bias voltage consists of a series of lobes of decreasing amplitude, and the phase of the AB-fringes is practically constant inside the lobes but jumps by $\pi$ at the minima of the visibility. We discuss in addition the consequences of approximations made in other recent treatments of this problem. We also formulate perturbation theory in the interaction strength and use this to study the importance of interactions that are not internal to the interferometer.

## Geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets: statistical mechanics and dynamics

ArXiv (0)

These lecture notes are intended to provide a simple overview of the physics of geometrically frustrated magnets. The emphasis is on classical and semiclassical treatments of the statistical mechanics and dynamics of frustrated Heisenberg models, and on the ways in which the results provide an understanding of some of the main observed properties of these systems.

## Random Walks and Anderson Localisation in a Three-Dimensional Class C Network Model

ArXiv (0)

We study the disorder-induced localisation transition in a three-dimensional network model that belongs to symmetry class C. The model represents quasiparticle dynamics in a gapless spin-singlet superconductor without time-reversal invariance. It is a special feature of network models with this symmetry that the conductance and density of states can be expressed as averages in a classical system of dense, interacting random walks. Using this mapping, we present a more precise numerical study of critical behaviour at an Anderson transition than has been possible previously in any context.

## Critical phenomena in a highly constrained classical spin system: Neel ordering from the Coulomb phase

ArXiv (0)

Many classical, geometrically frustrated antiferromagnets have macroscopically degenerate ground states. In a class of three-dimensional systems, the set of degenerate ground states has power-law correlations and is an example of a Coulomb phase. We investigate Neel ordering from such a Coulomb phase, induced by weak additional interactions that lift the degeneracy. We show that the critical point belongs to a universality class that is different from the one for the equivalent transition out of the paramagnetic phase, and that it is characterised by effective long-range interactions; alternatively, ordering may be discontinuous. We suggest that a transition of this type may be realised by applying uniaxial stress to a pyrochlore antiferromagnet.

## Electrostatic theory for imaging experiments on local charges in quantum Hall systems

ArXiv (0)

We use a simple electrostatic treatment to model recent experiments on quantum Hall systems, in which charging of localised states by addition of integer or fractionally-charged quasiparticles is observed. Treating the localised state as a compressible quantum dot or antidot embedded in an incompressible background, we calculate the electrostatic potential in its vicinity as a function of its charge, and the chemical potential values at which its charge changes. The results offer a quantitative framework for analysis of the observations.

## Dirty quantum Hall ferromagnets and quantum Hall spin glasses

ArXiv (0)

We study quantum Hall ferromagnets in the presence of a random electrostatic impurity potential, within the framework of a classical non-linear sigma model. We discuss the behaviour of the system using a heuristic picture for the competition between exchange and screening, and test our conclusions with extensive numerical simulations. We obtain a phase diagram for the system as a function of disorder strength and deviation of the average Landau level filling factor from unity. Screening of an impurity potential requires distortions of the spin configuration. In the absence of Zeeman coupling there is a disorder-driven, zero-temperature phase transition from a ferromagnet at weak disorder and small deviation from integer filling to a spin glass at stronger disorder or large charge deviation. We characterise the spin glass phase in terms of its magnetic and charge response, as well as its ac conductivity.

## Quantum Hall ferromagnets, cooperative transport anisotropy, and the random field Ising model

ArXiv (0)

We discuss the behaviour of a quantum Hall system when two Landau levels with opposite spin and combined filling factor near unity are brought into energetic coincidence using an in-plane component of magnetic field. We focus on the interpretation of recent experiments under these conditions [Zeitler et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 866 (2001); Pan et al, Phys. Rev. B 64, 121305 (2001)], in which a large resistance anisotropy develops at low temperatures. Modelling the systems involved as Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets, we suggest that this transport anisotropy reflects domain formation induced by a random field arising from isotropic sample surface roughness.

## Thermal metal in network models of a disordered two-dimensional superconductor

ArXiv (0)

We study the universality class for localization which arises from models of non-interacting quasiparticles in disordered superconductors that have neither time-reversal nor spin-rotation symmetries. Two-dimensional systems in this category, which is known as class D, can display phases with three different types of quasiparticle dynamics: metallic, localized, or with a quantized (thermal) Hall conductance. Correspondingly, they can show a variety of delocalization transitions. We illustrate this behavior by investigating numerically the phase diagrams of network models with the appropriate symmetry, and for the first time show the appearance of the metallic phase.

## Quantum disorder in the two-dimensional pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet

ArXiv (0)

We present the results of an exact diagonalization study of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a two-dimensional version of the pyrochlore lattice, also known as the square lattice with crossings or the checkerboard lattice. Examining the low energy spectra for systems of up to 24 spins, we find that all clusters studied have non-degenerate ground states with total spin zero, and big energy gaps to states with higher total spin. We also find a large number of non-magnetic excitations at energies within this spin gap. Spin-spin and spin-Peierls correlation functions appear to be short-ranged, and we suggest that the ground state is a spin liquid.

## Statistical properties of eigenvectors in non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrix ensembles

ArXiv (0)

Statistical properties of eigenvectors in non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles are discussed, with an emphasis on correlations between left and right eigenvectors. Two approaches are described. One is an exact calculation for Ginibre's ensemble, in which each matrix element is an independent, identically distributed Gaussian complex random variable. The other is a simpler calculation using $N^{-1}$ as an expansion parameter, where $N$ is the rank of the random matrix: this is applied to Girko's ensemble. Consequences of eigenvector correlations which may be of physical importance in applications are also discussed. It is shown that eigenvalues are much more sensitive to perturbations than in the corresponding Hermitian random matrix ensembles. It is also shown that, in problems with time-evolution governed by a non- Hermitian random matrix, transients are controlled by eigenvector correlations.

## The effects of interactions and disorder in the two-dimensional chiral metal

ArXiv (0)

We study the two-dimensional chiral metal, which is formed at the surface of a layered three-dimensional system exhibiting the integer quantum Hall effect by hybridization of the edge states associated with each layer of the sample. We investigate mesoscopic fluctuations, dynamical screening and inelastic scattering in the chiral metal, focussing particularly on fluctuations of conductance, $\delta g(B)$, with magnetic field, $B$. The correlation function $<\delta g(B) \delta g(B+\delta B)>$ provides information on the inelastic scattering rate, $\tau_{in}^{-1}$, through both the variance of fluctuations and the range of correlations in $\delta B$. We calculate this correlation function for samples which are not fully phase coherent. Two regimes of behaviour exist, according to whether $\tau_{in}^{-1}$ is smaller or larger than $\tau_{\perp}^{-1}$, the rate for inter-edge tunneling, and we give results in both regimes. We also investigate dynamical screening of Coulomb interactions in the chiral metal and calculate the contribution to $\tau_{in}^{-1}$ from electron-electron scattering, finding $\tau_{in}^{-1} \propto T^{3/2}$ for $\tau_{in}^{-1} \ll \tau_{\perp}^{-1}$ at temperature $T$.

## Quantum Hall plateau transitions in disordered superconductors

ArXiv (0)

We study a delocalization transition for non-interacting quasiparticles moving in two dimensions, which belongs to a new symmetry class. This symmetry class can be realised in a dirty, gapless superconductor in which time reversal symmetry for orbital motion is broken, but spin rotation symmetry is intact. We find a direct transition between two insulating phases with quantized Hall conductances of zero and two for the conserved quasiparticles. The energy of quasiparticles acts as a relevant, symmetry-breaking field at the critical point, which splits the direct transition into two conventional plateau transitions.

## Models for the integer quantum Hall effect: the network model, the Dirac equation, and a tight-binding Hamiltonian

ArXiv (0)

We consider models for the plateau transition in the integer quantum Hall effect. Starting from the network model, we construct a mapping to the Dirac Hamiltonian in two dimensions. In the general case, the Dirac Hamiltonian has randomness in the mass, the scalar potential, and the vector potential. Separately, we show that the network model can also be associated with a nearest neighbour, tight-binding Hamiltonian.

## Spectral statistics in spatially extended chaotic quantum many-body systems

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (0)

## Measurement-induced steering of quantum systems

ArXiv (0)

We set out a general protocol for steering the state of a quantum system from an arbitrary initial state towards a chosen target state by coupling it to auxiliary quantum degrees of freedom. The protocol requires multiple repetitions of an elementary step: during each step the system evolves for a fixed time while coupled to auxiliary degrees of freedom (which we term 'detector qubits') that have been prepared in a specified initial state. The detectors are discarded at the end of the step, or equivalently, their state is determined by a projective measurement with an unbiased average over all outcomes. The steering harnesses back-action of the detector qubits on the system, arising from entanglement generated during the coupled evolution. We establish principles for the design of the system-detector coupling that ensure steering of a desired form. We illustrate our general ideas using both few-body examples (including a pair of spins-1/2 steered to the singlet state) and a many-body example (a spin-1 chain steered to the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki state). We study the continuous time limit in our approach and discuss similarities to (and differences from) drive-and-dissipation protocols for quantum state engineering. Our protocols are amenable to implementations using present-day technology. Obvious extensions of our analysis include engineering of other many-body phases in one and higher spatial dimensions, adiabatic manipulations of the target states, and the incorporation of active error correction steps.