# Publications by John Chalker

## Percolation in Fock space as a proxy for many-body localisation

Physical review B: Condensed matter and materials physics American Physical Society (0)

We study classical percolation models in Fock space as proxies for the quantum many-body localisation (MBL) transition. Percolation rules are defined for two models of disordered quantum spin-chains using their microscopic quantum Hamiltonians and the topologies of the associated Fock-space graphs. The percolation transition is revealed by the statistics of Fock-space cluster sizes, obtained by exact enumeration for finite-sized systems. As a function of disorder strength, the typical cluster size shows a transition from a volume law in Fock space to sub-volume law, directly analogous to the behaviour of eigenstate participation entropies across the MBL transition. Finite-size scaling analyses for several diagnostics of cluster size statistics yield mutually consistent critical properties. We show further that local observables averaged over Fock-space clusters also carry signatures of the transition, with their behaviour across it in direct analogy to that of corresponding eigenstate expectation values across the MBL transition. The Fock-space clusters can be explored under a mapping to kinetically constrained models. Dynamics within this framework likewise show the ergodicity-breaking transition via Monte Carlo averaged local observables, and yield critical properties consistent with those obtained from both exact cluster enumeration and analytic results derived in our recent work [arXiv:1812.05115]. This mapping allows access to system sizes two orders of magnitude larger than those accessible in exact enumerations. Simple physical pictures based on freezing of local real-space segments of spins are also presented, and shown to give values for the critical disorder strength and correlation length exponent $\nu$ consistent with numerical studies.

## Spectral statistics in spatially extended chaotic quantum many-body systems

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (0)

## Dynamics of a two-dimensional quantum spin liquid: signatures of emergent Majorana fermions and fluxes

Phys. Rev. Lett. **112** (0) 207203-207203

Topological states of matter present a wide variety of striking new phenomena. Prominent among these is the fractionalisation of electrons into unusual particles: Majorana fermions [1], Laughlin quasiparticles [2] or magnetic monopoles [3]. Their detection, however, is fundamentally complicated by the lack of any local order, such as, for example, the magnetisation in a ferromagnet. While there are now several instances of candidate topological spin liquids [4], their identification remains challenging [5]. Here, we provide a complete and exact theoretical study of the dynamical structure factor of a two-dimensional quantum spin liquid in gapless and gapped phases. We show that there are direct signatures - qualitative and quantitative - of the Majorana fermions and gauge fluxes emerging in Kitaev's honeycomb model. These include counterintuitive manifestations of quantum number fractionalisation, such as a neutron scattering response with a gap even in the presence of gapless excitations, and a sharp component despite the fractionalisation of electron spin. Our analysis identifies new varieties of the venerable X-ray edge problem and explores connections to the physics of quantum quenches.

## Universal statistics of vortex lines

ArXiv (0)

We study the vortex lines that are a feature of many random or disordered three-dimensional systems. These show universal statistical properties on long length scales, and geometrical phase transitions analogous to percolation transitions but in distinct universality classes. The field theories for these problems have not previously been identified, so that while many numerical studies have been performed, a framework for interpreting the results has been lacking. We provide such a framework with mappings to simple supersymmetric models. Our main focus is on vortices in short-range correlated complex fields, which show a geometrical phase transition that we argue is described by the CP^{k|k} model (essentially the CP^{n-1} model in the replica limit n\rightarrow 1). This can be seen by mapping a lattice version of the problem to a lattice gauge theory. A related field theory with a noncompact gauge field, the 'NCCP^{k|k} model', is a supersymmetric extension of the standard dual theory for the XY transition, and we show that XY duality gives another way to understand the appearance of field theories of this type. The supersymmetric descriptions yield results relevant, for example, to vortices in the XY model and in superfluids, to optical vortices, and to certain models of cosmic strings. A distinct but related field theory, the RP^{2l|2l} model (or the RP^{n-1} model in the limit n\rightarrow 1) describes the unoriented vortices which occur for instance in nematic liquid crystals. Finally, we show that in two dimensions, a lattice gauge theory analogous to that discussed in three dimensions gives a simple way to see the known relation between two-dimensional percolation and the CP^{k|k} sigma model with a \theta-term.

## Equilibration of integer quantum Hall edge states

ArXiv (0)

We study equilibration of quantum Hall edge states at integer filling factors, motivated by experiments involving point contacts at finite bias. Idealising the experimental situation and extending the notion of a quantum quench, we consider time evolution from an initial non-equilibrium state in a translationally invariant system. We show that electron interactions bring the system into a steady state at long times. Strikingly, this state is not a thermal one: its properties depend on the full functional form of the initial electron distribution, and not simply on the initial energy density. Further, we demonstrate that measurements of the tunneling density of states at long times can yield either an over-estimate or an under-estimate of the energy density, depending on details of the analysis, and discuss this finding in connection with an apparent energy loss observed experimentally. More specifically, we treat several separate cases: for filling factor \nu=1 we discuss relaxation due to finite-range or Coulomb interactions between electrons in the same channel, and for filling factor \nu=2 we examine relaxation due to contact interactions between electrons in different channels. In both instances we calculate analytically the long-time asymptotics of the single-particle correlation function. These results are supported by an exact solution at arbitrary time for the problem of relaxation at \nu=2 from an initial state in which the two channels have electron distributions that are both thermal but with unequal temperatures, for which we also examine the tunneling density of states.

## Absent pinch points and emergent clusters: further neighbour interactions in the pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet

ArXiv (0)

We discuss the origin of spin correlations observed in neutron scattering experiments on the paramagnetic phase of a number of frustrated spinel compounds, most notably ZnCr2O4. These correlations are striking for two reasons. First, they have been interpreted as evidence for the formation of weakly interacting hexagonal clusters of spins. Second, they are very different from those calculated for the nearest neighbour Heisenberg pyrochlore antiferromagnet, in which Coulomb phase correlations generate sharp scattering features known as pinch points. Using large-$n$ calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that very weak further neighbour exchange interactions can account for both the apparent formation of clusters and the suppression of pinch points.

## A Three Dimensional Kasteleyn Transition: Spin Ice in a [100] Field

ArXiv (0)

We examine the statistical mechanics of spin-ice materials with a [100] magnetic field. We show that the approach to saturated magnetisation is, in the low-temperature limit, an example of a 3D Kasteleyn transition, which is topological in the sense that magnetisation is changed only by excitations that span the entire system. We study the transition analytically and using a Monte Carlo cluster algorithm, and compare our results with recent data from experiments on Dy2Ti2O7.

## Density of quasiparticle states for a two-dimensional disordered system: Metallic, insulating, and critical behavior in the class D thermal quantum Hall effect

ArXiv (0)

We investigate numerically the quasiparticle density of states $\varrho(E)$ for a two-dimensional, disordered superconductor in which both time-reversal and spin-rotation symmetry are broken. As a generic single-particle description of this class of systems (symmetry class D), we use the Cho-Fisher version of the network model. This has three phases: a thermal insulator, a thermal metal, and a quantized thermal Hall conductor. In the thermal metal we find a logarithmic divergence in $\varrho(E)$ as $E\to 0$, as predicted from sigma model calculations. Finite size effects lead to superimposed oscillations, as expected from random matrix theory. In the thermal insulator and quantized thermal Hall conductor, we find that $\varrho(E)$ is finite at E=0. At the plateau transition between these phases, $\varrho(E)$ decreases towards zero as $|E|$ is reduced, in line with the result $\varrho(E) \sim |E|\ln(1/|E|)$ derived from calculations for Dirac fermions with random mass.

## Ground states of a frustrated spin-1/2 antifferomagnet: Cs_2CuCl_4 in a magnetic field

ArXiv (0)

We present detailed calculations of the magnetic ground state properties of Cs$_2$CuCl$_4$ in an applied magnetic field, and compare our results with recent experiments. The material is described by a spin Hamiltonian, determined with precision in high field measurements, in which the main interaction is antiferromagnetic Heisenberg exchange between neighboring spins on an anisotropic triangular lattice. An additional, weak Dzyaloshinkii-Moriya interaction introduces easy-plane anisotropy, so that behavior is different for transverse and longitudinal field directions. We determine the phase diagram as a function of field strength for both field directions at zero temperature, using a classical approximation as a first step. Building on this, we calculate the effect of quantum fluctuations on the ordering wavevector and components of the ordered moments, using both linear spinwave theory and a mapping to a Bose gas which gives exact results when the magnetization is almost saturated. Many aspects of the experimental data are well accounted for by this approach.

## Eigenvector statistics in non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles

ArXiv (0)

We study statistical properties of the eigenvectors of non-Hermitian random matrices, concentrating on Ginibre's complex Gaussian ensemble, in which the real and imaginary parts of each element of an N x N matrix, J, are independent random variables. Calculating ensemble averages based on the quantity $< L_\alpha | L_\beta > < R_\beta | R_\alpha >$, where $< L_\alpha |$ and $| R_\beta >$ are left and right eigenvectors of J, we show for large N that eigenvectors associated with a pair of eigenvalues are highly correlated if the two eigenvalues lie close in the complex plane. We examine consequences of these correlations that are likely to be important in physical applications.

## Diffusion in a Random Velocity Field: Spectral Properties of a Non-Hermitian Fokker-Planck Operator

ArXiv (0)

We study spectral properties of the Fokker-Planck operator that describes particles diffusing in a quenched random velocity field. This random operator is non-Hermitian and has eigenvalues occupying a finite area in the complex plane. We calculate the eigenvalue density and averaged one-particle Green's function, for weak disorder and dimension d>2. We relate our results to the time-evolution of particle density, and compare them with numerical simulations.

## Random Walks through the Ensemble: Linking Spectral Statistics with Wavefunction Correlations in Disordered Metals

ArXiv (0)

We use a random walk in the ensemble of impurity configurations to generate a Brownian motion model for energy levels in disordered conductors. Treating arc-length along the random walk as fictitous time, the resulting Langevin equation relates spectral statistics to eigenfunction correlations. Solving this equation at energy scales large compared with the mean level spacing, we obtain the spectral form factor, and its parametric dependence.

## Theory of Spin-Split Cyclotron Resonance in the Extreme Quantum Limit

ArXiv (0)

We present an interpretation of recent cyclotron resonance experiments on the two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. We show that the observed dependence of the resonance spectrum on Landau level occupancy and temperature arises from the interplay of three factors: spin-splitting of the cyclotron frequency; thermal population of the two spin states; and coupling of the resonances for each spin orientation by Coulomb interactions. In addition, we derive an $f$-sum rule which allows spin polarisation to be determined directly from resonance spectra.

## THE HALL-EFFECT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELECTRON-GAS

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS C-SOLID STATE PHYSICS **16** (1983) 4297-4304

## THE PINNING OF AN INTERFACE BY A PLANAR DEFECT

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A-MATHEMATICAL AND GENERAL **15** (1982) L481-L485

## A DUALITY RELATION BETWEEN AN INTERFACE IN A PINNING POTENTIAL AND A MODIFIED COULOMB GAS

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A-MATHEMATICAL AND GENERAL **15** (1982) 2899-2904

## THE PINNING OF A DOMAIN-WALL BY WEAKENED BONDS IN 2 DIMENSIONS

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A-MATHEMATICAL AND GENERAL **14** (1981) 2431-2440

## THE UPPER CRITICAL DIMENSIONALITY OF A CLASS OF STRUCTURAL PHASE-TRANSITIONS

PHYSICS LETTERS A **80** (1980) 40-42

## CROSSOVER-BEHAVIOR OF THE UNIAXIAL DIPOLAR FERROMAGNET

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS C-SOLID STATE PHYSICS **12** (1979) 5545-5550

## Spectral statistics in spatially extended chaotic quantum many-body systems

Physical Review Letters American Physical Society (0)