Publications by Jean-Loup Baudino

Physical and orbital properties of β Pictoris b

Astronomy and Astrophysics 567 (2014)

M Bonnefoy, GD Marleau, R Galicher, H Beust, AM Lagrange, JL Baudino, G Chauvin, S Borgniet, N Meunier, J Rameau, A Boccaletti, A Cumming, C Helling, D Homeier, F Allard, P Delorme

The intermediate-mass star β Pictoris is known to be surrounded by a structured edge-on debris disk within which a gas giant planet was discovered orbiting at 8-10 AU. The physical properties of β Pic b were previously inferred from broad-and narrow-band 0.9-4.8 μm photometry. We used commissioning data of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to obtain new astrometry and a lowresolution (R ∼ 35-39) J-band (1.12-1.35 μm) spectrum of the planet. We find that the planet has passed the quadrature. We constrain its semi-major axis to ≤10 AU (90% prob.) with a peak at 8.9 +0.4 -0.6 AU. The joint fit of the planet astrometry and the most recent radial velocity measurements of the star yields a planet dynamical mass lower than 20 M Jup (≥96% prob.). The extracted spectrum of β Pic b is similar to those of young L1 +1 -1.5 dwarfs. We used the spectral type estimate to revise the planet luminosity to log(L=L⊙) =-3.90±0.07. The 0.9-4.8 μm photometry and spectrum are reproduced for T eff = 1650 ± 150 K and a log g ≤ 4.7 dex by 12 grids of PHOENIX-based and LESIA atmospheric models. For the most recent system age estimate (21 ± 4 Myr), the bolometric luminosity and the constraints on the dynamical mass of β Pic b are only reproduced by warm-and hot-start tracks with initial entropies S i 10.5 k B /baryon. These initial conditions may result from an inefficient accretion shock and/or a planetesimal density at formation higher than in the classical core-accretion model. Considering a younger age for the system or a conservative formation time for β Pic b does not change these conclusions. © 2014 ESO.

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