Publications


X-ray polarization measurements of dense plasmas heated by fast electrons

AIP Conference Proceedings 1228 (2010) 79-85

N Booth, RJ Clarke, P Gallegos, LA Gizzi, G Gregori, P Koester, L Labate, T Levato, B Li, M Makita, J Pasley, PP Rajeev, D Riley, E Wagenaars, JN Waugh, NC Woolsey

The detailed knowledge of fast electron energy transport following interaction with high-intensity, ultra-short laser pulses is a key area for secondary source generation for ELI. We demonstrate polarization spectroscopy at laser intensities up to 1021 Wcm-2. This is significant as it suggests that in situ emission spectroscopy may be used as an effective probe of fast electron velocity distributions in regimes relevant to electron transport in solid targets. Ly-α doublet emission of nickel (Z = 28) and sulphur (Z = 16) is observed to measure the degree of polarization from the Ly-α1 emission. Ly-α2 emission is unpolarized, and as such acts as a calibration source between spectrometers. The measured ratio of the X-ray σ-and π-polarization allows the possibility to infer the velocity distribution function of the fast electron beam. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Ultrafast melting of carbon induced by intense proton beams

Physical Review Letters 105 (2010)

A Pelka, G Gregori, DO Gericke, J Vorberger, SH Glenzer, MM Günther, K Harres, R Heathcote, AL Kritcher, NL Kugland, B Li, M Makita, J Mithen, D Neely, C Niemann, A Otten, D Riley, G Schaumann, M Schollmeier, A Tauschwitz, M Roth

Laser-produced proton beams have been used to achieve ultrafast volumetric heating of carbon samples at solid density. The isochoric melting of carbon was probed by a scattering of x rays from a secondary laser-produced plasma. From the scattering signal, we have deduced the fraction of the material that was melted by the inhomogeneous heating. The results are compared to different theoretical approaches for the equation of state which suggests modifications from standard models. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Inferring the electron temperature and density of shocked liquid deuterium using inelastic X-ray scattering

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 244 (2010)

SP Regan, PB Radha, TR Boehly, T Doeppner, K Falk, SH Glenzer, VN Goncharov, G Gregori, OL Landen, RL McCrory, DD Meyerhofer, P Neumayer, TC Sangster, VA Smalyuk

An experiment designed to launch laser-ablation-driven shock waves (10 to 70 Mbar) in a planar liquid-deuterium target on the OMEGA Laser System and to diagnose the shocked conditions using inelastic x-ray scattering is described. The electron temperature (Te) is inferred from the Doppler-broadened Compton-downshifted peak of the noncollective (αs = 1kλD > 1) x-ray scattering for Te > T Fermi. The electron density (ne) is inferred from the downshifted plasmon peak of the collective (αscatter > 1) x-ray scattering. A cylindrical layer of liquid deuterium is formed in a cryogenic cell with 8-μm-thick polyimide windows. The polyimide ablator is irradiated with peak intensities in the range of 1013 to 10 15 W/cm2 and shock waves are launched. Predictions from a 1-D hydrodynamics code show the shocked deuterium has a thickness of ∼0.1 mm with spatially uniform conditions. For the drive intensities under consideration, electron density up to ∼5 × 1023 cm -3 and electron temperature in the range of 10 to 25 eV are predicted. A laser-irradiated saran foil produces Cl Ly αemission. The spectrally resolved x-ray scattering is recorded at 90° for the noncollective scattering and at 40° for the collective scattering with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal spectrometer and an x-ray framing camera. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Laser Physics

Oxford University Press, 2010
Part of a series from Oxford Master Series in Atomic, Optical, and Laser Physics

SM Hooker, CE Webb

In this book the interaction of radiation and matter, and the principles of laser operation are treated at a level suitable for fourth-year undergraduate ...


Measurement of the dynamic response of compressed hydrogen by inelastic X-ray scattering

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 244 (2010)

K Falk, AP Jephcoat, BJB Crowley, RR Fäustlin, C Fortmann, FY Khattak, AK Kleppe, D Riley, S Toleikis, J Wark, H Wilhelm, G Gregori

Measurement of the dynamic properties of hydrogen and helium under extreme pressures is a key to understanding the physics of planetary interiors. The inelastic scattering signal from statically compressed hydrogen inside diamond anvil cells at 2.8 GPa and 6.4 GPa was measured at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron facility in the UK. The first direct measurement of the local field correction to the Coulomb interactions in degenerate plasmas was obtained from spectral shifts in the scattering data and compared to predictions by the Utsumi-Ichimaru theory for degenerate electron liquids. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Phonon instabilities in uniaxially compressed fcc metals as seen in molecular dynamics simulations

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 81 (2010) ARTN 092102

G Kimminau, P Erhart, EM Bringa, B Remington, JS Wark


Investigation of the role of plasma channels as waveguides for laser-wakefield accelerators

New Journal of Physics 12 (2010)

TPA Ibbotson, N Bourgeois, TP Rowlands-Rees, LS Caballero, SI Bajlekov, PA Walker, S Kneip, M Spd, SR Nagel, P Caj, N Delerue, G Doucas, D Urner, O Chekhlov, RJ Clarke, E Divall, K Ertel, P Foster, SJ Hawkes, CJ Hooker, B Parry, PP Rajeev, MJV Streeter, SM Hooker

The role of plasma channels as waveguides for laser-wakefield accelerators is discussed in terms of the results of experiments performed with the Astra-Gemini laser, numerical simulations using the code WAKE, and the theory of self-focusing and self-guiding of intense laser beams. It is found that at a given electron density, electron beams can be accelerated using lower laser powers in a waveguide structure than in a gas-jet or cell. The transition between relativistically self-guided and channel-assisted guiding is seen in the simulations and in the behaviour of the production of electron beams. We also show that by improving the quality of the driving laser beam the threshold laser energy required to produce electron beams can be reduced by a factor of almost 2. The use of an aperture allows the production of a quasi-monoenergetic electron beam of energy 520 MeV with an input laser power of only 30 TW. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Generation and control of chirped, ultrafast pulse trains

Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics 12 (2010)

K O'Keeffe, T Robinson, SM Hooker

A method for generating non-uniformly spaced (chirped) trains of high-energy, high-contrast, femtosecond pulses is described and demonstrated. In this method a temporally stretched laser pulse is passed through an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF), a birefringent plate, and a linear polarizer. It is demonstrated that linear and nonlinear variation of the pulse separation within the train may be controlled by changing respectively the third-and fourth-order dispersion introduced by the AOPDF. Programmable, non-uniform pulse trains of this type may find applications in quasi-phase matching high-harmonic generation. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Electronic structure of an XUV photogenerated solid-density aluminum plasma.

Phys Rev Lett 104 (2010) 225001-

SM Vinko, U Zastrau, S Mazevet, J Andreasson, S Bajt, T Burian, J Chalupsky, HN Chapman, J Cihelka, D Doria, T Döppner, S Düsterer, T Dzelzainis, RR Fäustlin, C Fortmann, E Förster, E Galtier, SH Glenzer, S Göde, G Gregori, J Hajdu, V Hajkova, PA Heimann, R Irsig, L Juha, M Jurek, J Krzywinski, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, RW Lee, B Li, KH Meiwes-Broer, JP Mithen, B Nagler, AJ Nelson, A Przystawik, R Redmer, D Riley, F Rosmej, R Sobierajski, F Tavella, R Thiele, J Tiggesbäumker, S Toleikis, T Tschentscher, L Vysin, TJ Whitcher, S White, JS Wark

By use of high intensity XUV radiation from the FLASH free-electron laser at DESY, we have created highly excited exotic states of matter in solid-density aluminum samples. The XUV intensity is sufficiently high to excite an inner-shell electron from a large fraction of the atoms in the focal region. We show that soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements reveal the electronic temperature and density of this highly excited system immediately after the excitation pulse, with detailed calculations of the electronic structure, based on finite-temperature density functional theory, in good agreement with the experimental results.


Bragg diffraction using a 100 ps 17.5 keV x-ray backlighter and the Bragg diffraction imager

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 81 (2010)

BR Maddox, H-S Park, J Hawreliak, A Elsholz, R Van Maren, BA Remington, A Comley, JS Wark


All-optical steering of laser-wakefield-accelerated electron beams

Physical Review Letters 105 (2010)

A Popp, J Vieira, J Osterhoff, Z Major, R Hörlein, M Fuchs, R Weingartner, TP Rowlands-Rees, M Marti, RA Fonseca, SF Martins, LO Silva, SM Hooker, F Krausz, F Grüner, S Karsch

We investigate the influence of a tilted laser-pulse-intensity front on laser-wakefield acceleration. Such asymmetric light pulses may be exploited to obtain control over the electron-bunch-pointing direction and in our case allowed for reproducible electron-beam steering in an all-optical way within an 8 mrad opening window with respect to the initial laser axis. We also discovered evidence of collective electron-betatron oscillations due to off-axis electron injection into the wakefield induced by a pulse-front tilt. These findings are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Relativistic quasimonoenergetic positron jets from intense laser-solid interactions.

Phys Rev Lett 105 (2010) 015003-

H Chen, SC Wilks, DD Meyerhofer, J Bonlie, CD Chen, SN Chen, C Courtois, L Elberson, G Gregori, W Kruer, O Landoas, J Mithen, J Myatt, CD Murphy, P Nilson, D Price, M Schneider, R Shepherd, C Stoeckl, M Tabak, R Tommasini, P Beiersdorfer

Detailed angle and energy resolved measurements of positrons ejected from the back of a gold target that was irradiated with an intense picosecond duration laser pulse reveal that the positrons are ejected in a collimated relativistic jet. The laser-positron energy conversion efficiency is ∼2×10{-4}. The jets have ∼20 degree angular divergence and the energy distributions are quasimonoenergetic with energy of 4 to 20 MeV and a beam temperature of ∼1  MeV. The sheath electric field on the surface of the target is shown to determine the positron energy. The positron angular and energy distribution is controlled by varying the sheath field, through the laser conditions and target geometry.


Metal deformation and phase transitions at extremely high strain rates

MRS BULLETIN 35 (2010) 999-1006

RE Rudd, TC Germann, BA Remington, JS Wark


Screening of ionic cores in partially ionized plasmas within linear response

Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 81 (2010)

DO Gericke, J Vorberger, K Wünsch, G Gregori

We employ a pseudopotential approach to investigate the screening of ionic cores in partially ionized plasmas. Here, the effect of the tightly bound electrons is condensed into an effective potential between the (free) valence electrons and the ionic cores. Even for weak electron-ion coupling, the corresponding screening clouds show strong modifications from the Debye result for elements heavier than helium. Modifications of the theoretically predicted x-ray scattering signal and implications on measurements are discussed. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Soft X-ray scattering using FEL radiation for probing near-solid density plasmas at few electron volt temperatures

High Energy Density Physics 6 (2010) 15-20

S Toleikis, RR Fäustlin, L Cao, T Döppner, S Düsterer, E Förster, C Fortmann, SH Glenzer, S Göde, G Gregori, R Irsig, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, B Li, J Mithen, K-H Meiwes-Broer, A Przystawik, P Radcliffe, R Redmer, F Tavella, R Thiele, J Tiggesbäumker, NX Truong, I Uschmann, U Zastrau, T Tschentscher

We report on soft X-ray scattering experiments on cryogenic hydrogen and simple metal samples. As a source of intense, ultrashort soft X-ray pulses we have used free-electron laser radiation at 92 eV photon energy from FLASH at DESY, Hamburg. X-ray pulses with energies up to 150 μJ and durations 15-50 fs provide interaction with the sample leading simultaneously to plasma formation and scattering. Experiments exploiting both of these interactions have been carried out, using the same experimental setup. Firstly, recording of soft X-ray inelastic scattering from near-solid density hydrogen plasmas at few electron volt temperatures confirms the feasibility of this diagnostics technique. Secondly, the soft X-ray excitation of few electron volt solid-density plasmas in bulk metal samples could be studied by recording soft X-ray line and continuum emission integrated over emission times from fs to ns. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Laser-wakefield acceleration of electron beams in a low density plasma channel

Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams 13 (2010)

TPA Ibbotson, N Bourgeois, TP Rowlands-Rees, LS Caballero, SI Bajlekov, PA Walker, S Kneip, SPD Mangles, SR Nagel, CAJ Palmer, N Delerue, G Doucas, D Urner, O Chekhlov, RJ Clarke, E Divall, K Ertel, PS Foster, SJ Hawkes, CJ Hooker, B Parry, PP Rajeev, MJV Streeter, SM Hooker

The generation of quasimonoenergetic electron beams, with energies greater than 500 MeV, in a laser-plasma accelerator driven by 2.5 J, 80 fs laser pulses guided in a low density plasma channel, is investigated. The laser energy required to achieve electron injection is found to depend strongly on the quality of the input laser focal spot. Simulations show that, although the matched spot size of the plasma channel is greater than the self-focused spot size, the channel assists relativistic self-focusing and enables electron injection to occur at lower plasma densities and laser powers than would be possible without a waveguide. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


The strength of single crystal copper under uniaxial shock compression at 100 GPa.

J Phys Condens Matter 22 (2010) 065404-

WJ Murphy, A Higginbotham, G Kimminau, B Barbrel, EM Bringa, J Hawreliak, R Kodama, M Koenig, W McBarron, MA Meyers, B Nagler, N Ozaki, N Park, B Remington, S Rothman, SM Vinko, T Whitcher, JS Wark

In situ x-ray diffraction has been used to measure the shear strain (and thus strength) of single crystal copper shocked to 100 GPa pressures at strain rates over two orders of magnitude higher than those achieved previously. For shocks in the [001] direction there is a significant associated shear strain, while shocks in the [111] direction give negligible shear strain. We infer, using molecular dynamics simulations and VISAR (standing for 'velocity interferometer system for any reflector') measurements, that the strength of the material increases dramatically (to approximately 1 GPa) for these extreme strain rates.


First milestone on the path toward a table-top free-electron laser (FEL)

AIP Conference Proceedings 1228 (2010) 295-300

M Fuchs, R Weingartner, A Popp, Z Major, S Becker, J Osterhoff, T Seggebrock, R Hörlein, GD Tsakiris, U Schramm, TP Rowlands-Rees, SM Hooker, D Habs, F Krausz, S Karsch, F Grüner

Latest developments in the field of laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) have led to relatively stable electron beams in terms of peak energy, charge, pointing and divergence from mmsized accelerators. Simulations and LWFA theory indicate that these beams have low transverse emittances and ultrashort bunch durations on the order of ∼ 10 fs. These features make LWFAs perfectly suitable for driving high-brightness X-ray undulator sources and free-electron lasers (FELs) on a university-laboratory scale.With the detection of soft-X-ray radiation from an undulator source driven by laser-wakefield accelerated electrons, we succeeded in achieving a first milestone on this path. The source delivers remarkably stable photon beams which is mainly due to the stable electron beam and our miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses, which significantly reduce its divergence and angular shot-to-shot variation. An increase in electron energy allows for compact, tunable, hard-Xray undulator sources. Improvements of the electron beams in terms of charge and energy spread will put table-top FELs within reach. © 2010 American Institute of Physids.


Probing near-solid density plasmas using soft x-ray scattering

Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics 43 (2010)

S Toleikis, T Bornath, T Döppner, S Düsterer, RR Fäustlin, E Förster, C Fortmann, SH Glenzer, S Göde, G Gregori, R Irsig, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, B Li, K-H Meiwes-Broer, J Mithen, B Nagler, A Przystawik, P Radcliffe, H Redlin, R Redmer, H Reinholz, G Röpke, F Tavella, R Thiele, J Tiggesbäumker, I Uschmann, SM Vinko, T Whitcher, U Zastrau, B Ziaja, T Tschentscher

X-ray scattering using highly brilliant x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) radiation provides new access to probe free-electron density, temperature and ionization in near-solid density plasmas. First experiments at the soft x-ray FEL FLASH at DESY, Hamburg, show the capabilities of this technique. The ultrashort FEL pulses in particular can probe equilibration phenomena occurring after excitation of the plasma using ultrashort optical laser pumping. We have investigated liquid hydrogen and find that the interaction of very intense soft x-ray FEL radiation alone heats the sample volume. As the plasma establishes, photons from the same pulse undergo scattering, thus probing the transient, warm dense matter state. We find a free-electron density of (2.6 ± 0.2) × 1020 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 14 ± 3.5 eV. In pump-probe experiments, using intense optical laser pulses to generate more extreme states of matter, this interaction of the probe pulse has to be considered in the interpretation of scattering data. In this paper, we present details of the experimental setup at FLASH and the diagnostic methods used to quantitatively analyse the data. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Static ion structure factor for dense plasmas: Semi-classical and ab initio calculations

High Energy Density Physics 6 (2010) 305-310

V Schwarz, B Holst, T Bornath, C Fortmann, W-D Kraeft, R Thiele, R Redmer, G Gregori, HJ Lee, T Döppner, SH Glenzer

We calculate the static structure factor of dense multi-component plasmas. Large scale ab initio finite-temperature DFT molecular dynamics simulations are performed in order to cover the region where a consistent quantum treatment for the electrons is inevitable. Especially, the behavior at small wave numbers k can be inferred from the relation to the isothermal compressibility. Alternatively, the static structure factor is obtained by solving the integral equations for the pair correlation functions within the hypernetted chain (HNC) scheme. For this purpose we derive new effective two-particle quantum potentials for the interactions between the charge carriers from the full two-particle Slater sum by accounting for bound states. Comparison to the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations enables us to determine the short-range behavior of the effective electron-ion quantum potentials. Results for the static structure factor are presented for beryllium plasmas at solid density and at threefold compression. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.