The radial velocity experiment (RAVE): Fourth data release

Astronomical Journal 146 (2013)

G Kordopatis, G Gilmore, M Steinmetz, C Boeche, GM Seabroke, A Siebert, T Zwitter, J Binney, P De Laverny, A Recio-Blanco, MEK Williams, T Piffl, H Enke, S Roeser, A Bijaoui, RFG Wyse, K Freeman, U Munari, I Carrillo, B Anguiano, D Burton, R Campbell, CJP Cass, K Fiegert, M Hartley, QA Parker, W Reid, A Ritter, KS Russell, M Stupar, FG Watson, O Bienaymé, J Bland-Hawthorn, O Gerhard, BK Gibson, EK Grebel, A Helmi, JF Navarro, C Conrad, B Famaey, C Faure, A Just, J Kos, G Matijevič, PJ McMillan, I Minchev, R Scholz, S Sharma, A Siviero, E Wylie De Boer, M Žerjal

We present the stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, overall metallicity), radial velocities, individual abundances, and distances determined for 425,561 stars, which constitute the fourth public data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE). The stellar atmospheric parameters are computed using a new pipeline, based on the algorithms of MATISSE and DEGAS. The spectral degeneracies and the Two Micron All Sky Survey photometric information are now better taken into consideration, improving the parameter determination compared to the previous RAVE data releases. The individual abundances for six elements (magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, iron, and nickel) are also given, based on a special-purpose pipeline that is also improved compared to that available for the RAVE DR3 and Chemical DR1 data releases. Together with photometric information and proper motions, these data can be retrieved from the RAVE collaboration Web site and the Vizier database. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Fast and slow rotators in the densest environments: a FLAMES/GIRAFFE IFS study of galaxies in Abell 1689 at z=0.183

ArXiv (2012)

F D'Eugenio, RCW Houghton, RL Davies, ED Bontà

We present FLAMES/GIRAFFE integral field spectroscopy of 30 galaxies in the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.183. Conducting an analysis similar to that of ATLAS3D, we extend the baseline of the kinematic morphology-density relation by an order of magnitude in projected density and show that it is possible to use existing instruments to identify slow and fast rotators beyond the local Universe. We find 4.5 +- 1.0 slow rotators with a distribution in magnitude similar to those in the Virgo cluster. The overall slow rotator fraction of our Abell 1689 sample is 0.15 +- 0.03, the same as in Virgo using our selection criteria. This suggests that the fraction of slow rotators in a cluster is not strongly dependent on its density. However, within Abell 1689, we find that the fraction of slow rotators increases towards the centre, as was also found in the Virgo cluster.

X-ray emission around the z=4.1 radio galaxy TNJ1338-1942 and the potential role of far-infrared photons in AGN Feedback

ArXiv (2013)

I Smail, K Blundell

We report the discovery in an 80-ks observation of spatially-extended X-ray emission around the high-redshift radio galaxy TNJ1388-1942 (z=4.11) with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission extends over a ~30-kpc diameter region and although it is less extended than the GHz-radio lobes, it is roughly aligned with them. We suggest that the X-ray emission arises from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of photons by relativistic electrons around the radio galaxy. At z=4.11 this is the highest redshift detection of IC emission around a radio galaxy. We investigate the hypothesis that in this compact source, the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which is ~700x more intense than at z~0 is nonetheless not the relevant seed photon field for the bulk of the IC emission. Instead, we find a tentative correlation between the IC emission and far-infrared luminosities of compact, far-infrared luminous high-redshift radio galaxies (those with lobe lengths of <100kpc). Based on these results we suggest that in the earliest phases of the evolution of radio-loud AGN at very high redshift, the far-infrared photons from the co-eval dusty starbursts occuring within these systems may make a significant contribution to their IC X-ray emission and so contribute to the feedback in these massive high-redshift galaxies.

Satellite Survival in Highly Resolved Milky Way Class Halos

ArXiv (2012)

S Geen, A Slyz, J Devriendt

Surprisingly little is known about the origin and evolution of the Milky Way's satellite galaxy companions. UV photoionisation, supernova feedback and interactions with the larger host halo are all thought to play a role in shaping the population of satellites that we observe today, but there is still no consensus as to which of these effects, if any, dominates. In this paper, we revisit the issue by re-simulating a Milky Way class dark matter (DM) halo with unprecedented resolution. Our set of cosmological hydrodynamic Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) simulations, called the Nut suite, allows us to investigate the effect of supernova feedback and UV photoionisation at high redshift with sub-parsec resolution. We subsequently follow the effect of interactions with the Milky Way-like halo using a lower spatial resolution (50pc) version of the simulation down to z=0. This latter produces a population of simulated satellites that we compare to the observed satellites of the Milky Way and M31. We find that supernova feedback reduces star formation in the least massive satellites but enhances it in the more massive ones. Photoionisation appears to play a very minor role in suppressing star and galaxy formation in all progenitors of satellite halos. By far the largest effect on the satellite population is found to be the mass of the host and whether gas cooling is included in the simulation or not. Indeed, inclusion of gas cooling dramatically reduces the number of satellites captured at high redshift which survive down to z=0.

Simulation of laser-driven, ablated plasma flows in collisionless shock experiments on OMEGA and the NIF

High Energy Density Physics 9 (2013) 192-197

MJ Grosskopf, RP Drake, CC Kuranz, EM Rutter, JS Ross, NL Kugland, C Plechaty, BA Remington, A Spitkovsky, L Gargate, G Gregori, A Bell, CD Murphy, J Meinecke, B Reville, Y Sakawa, Y Kuramitsu, H Takabe, DH Froula, G Fiksel, F Miniati, M Koenig, A Ravasio, E Liang, W Fu, N Woolsey, H-S Park

Experiments investigating the physics of interpenetrating, collisionless, ablated plasma flows have become an important area of research in the high-energy-density field. In order to evaluate the feasibility of designing experiments that will generate a collisionless shock mediated by the Weibel instability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser, computer simulations using the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) radiation-hydrodynamics model have been carried out. This paper reports assessment of whether the experiment can reach the required scale size while maintaining the low interflow collisionality necessary for the collisionless shock to form. Comparison of simulation results with data from Omega experiments shows the ability of the CRASH code to model these ablated systems. The combined results indicate that experiments on the NIF are capable of reaching the regimes necessary for the formation of a collisionless shock in a laboratory experiment. © 2013.

Present status of fast ignition realization experiment and inertial fusion energy development

Nuclear Fusion 53 (2013)

H Azechi, K Mima, S Shiraga, S Fujioka, H Nagatomo, T Johzaki, T Jitsuno, M Key, R Kodama, M Koga, K Kondo, J Kawanaka, N Miyanaga, M Murakami, K Nagai, M Nakai, H Nakamura, T Nakamura, T Nakazato, Y Nakao, K Nishihara, H Nishimura, T Norimatsu, P Norreys, T Ozaki, J Pasley, H Sakagami, Y Sakawa, N Sarukura, K Shigemori, T Shimizu, A Sunahara, T Taguchi, K Tanaka, K Tsubakimoto, Y Fujimoto, H Homma, A Iwamoto

One of the most advanced fast ignition programmes is the fast ignition realization experiment (FIREX). The goal of its first phase is to demonstrate ignition temperature of 5 keV, followed by the second phase to demonstrate ignition-and-burn. The second series experiment of FIREX-I, from late 2010 to early 2011, has demonstrated a high (>10%) coupling efficiency from laser to thermal energy of the compressed core, suggesting that the ignition temperature can be achieved at laser energy below 10 kJ. Further improvement of the coupling efficiency is expected by introducing laser-driven magnetic fields. © 2013 IAEA, Vienna.

Cosmic ray acceleration

Astroparticle Physics 43 (2013) 56-

AR Bell

XUV spectroscopic characterization of warm dense aluminum plasmas generated by the free-electron-laser FLASH

Laser and Particle Beams 30 (2012) 45-56

U Zastrau, T Burian, J Chalupsky, T Döppner, TWJ Dzelzainis, RR Fäustlin, C Fortmann, E Galtier, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, L Juha, HJ Lee, RW Lee, CLS Lewis, N Medvedev, B Nagler, AJ Nelson, D Riley, FB Rosmej, S Toleikis, T Tschentscher, I Uschmann, SM Vinko, JS Wark, T Whitcher, E Förster

We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 μJ are focused to intensities ranging between 10 13 and 10 17 W/cm 2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

Inelastic x-ray scattering from shocked liquid deuterium

Physical Review Letters 109 (2012)

SP Regan, K Falk, G Gregori, PB Radha, SX Hu, TR Boehly, BJB Crowley, SH Glenzer, OL Landen, DO Gericke, T Döppner, DD Meyerhofer, CD Murphy, TC Sangster, J Vorberger

The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation - driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. These first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results. © 2012 American Physical Society.

AGN feedback using AMR cosmological simulations

ArXiv (2011)

Y Dubois, J Devriendt, A Slyz, R Teyssier

Feedback processes are thought to solve some of the long-standing issues of the numerical modelling of galaxy formation: over-cooling, low angular momentum, massive blue galaxies, extra-galactic enrichment, etc. The accretion of gas onto super-massive black holes in the centre of massive galaxies can release tremendous amounts of energy to the surrounding medium. We show, with cosmological Adaptive Mesh Refinement simulations, how the growth of black holes is regulated by the feedback from Active Galactic Nuclei using a new dual jet/heating mechanism. We discuss how this large amount of feedback is able to modify the cold baryon content of galaxies, and perturb the properties of the hot plasma in their vicinity.

Telescopes of the future

ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS 53 (2012) 15-18

R Davies

Quantum hydrodynamics of strongly coupled electron fluids

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85 (2012) ARTN 046408

R Schmidt, BJB Crowley, J Mithen, G Gregori

Laboratory investigations on the origins of cosmic rays

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 54 (2012)

Y Kuramitsu, Y Sakawa, T Morita, T Ide, K Nishio, H Tanji, H Aoki, S Dono, CD Gregory, JN Waugh, N Woolsey, A Dizière, A Pelka, A Ravasio, B Loupias, M Koenig, SA Pikuz, YT Li, Y Zhang, X Liu, JY Zhong, J Zhang, G Gregori, N Nakanii, K Kondo, Y Mori, E Miura, R Kodama, Y Kitagawa, K Mima, KA Tanaka, H Azechi, T Moritaka, Y Matsumoto, T Sano, A Mizuta, N Ohnishi, M Hoshino, H Takabe

We report our recent efforts on the experimental investigations related to the origins of cosmic rays. The origins of cosmic rays are long standing open issues in astrophysics. The galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays are considered to be accelerated in non-relativistic and relativistic collisionless shocks in the universe, respectively. However, the acceleration and transport processes of the cosmic rays are not well understood, and how the collisionless shocks are created is still under investigation. Recent high-power and high-intensity laser technologies allow us to simulate astrophysical phenomena in laboratories. We present our experimental results of collisionless shock formations in laser-produced plasmas. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Concepts in Thermal Physics 2nd Edition

, 2012

SJ Blundell, KM Blundell

Data and two-dimensional scaling relations for galaxies in Abell 1689: a hint of size evolution at z similar to 0.2


RCW Houghton, RL Davies, E Dalla Bonta, R Masters

X-ray surface brightness and gas density fluctuations in the Coma cluster

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 421 (2012) 1123-1135

E Churazov, A Vikhlinin, I Zhuravleva, A Schekochihin, I Parrish, R Sunyaev, W Forman, H Böhringer, S Randall

X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core (650 × 650 kpc) region of the Coma cluster observed with XMM-Newton and Chandra are analysed using a 2D power spectrum approach. The resulting 2D spectra are converted to 3D power spectra of gas density fluctuations. Our independent analyses of the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations are in excellent agreement and provide the most sensitive measurements of surface brightness and density fluctuations for a hot cluster. We find that the characteristic amplitude of the volume filling density fluctuations relative to the smooth underlying density distribution varies from 7-10 per cent on scales of ~500kpc down to ~5 per cent on scales of ~30kpc. On smaller spatial scales, projection effects smear the density fluctuations by a large factor, precluding strong limits on the fluctuations in 3D. On the largest scales probed (hundreds of kpc), the dominant contributions to the observed fluctuations most likely arise from perturbations of the gravitational potential by the two most massive galaxies in Coma, NGC4874 and NGC4889, and the low-entropy gas brought to the cluster by an infalling group. Other plausible sources of X-ray surface brightness fluctuations are discussed, including turbulence, metal abundance variations and unresolved sources. Despite a variety of possible origins for density fluctuations, the gas in the Coma cluster core is remarkably homogeneous on scales from ~500 to ~30kpc. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.

Design considerations for unmagnetized collisionless-shock measurements in homologous flows

Astrophysical Journal 749 (2012)

RP Drake, G Gregori

The subject of this paper is the design of practical laser experiments that can produce collisionless shocks mediated by the Weibel instability. Such shocks may be important in a wide range of astrophysical systems. Three issues are considered. The first issue is the implications of the fact that such experiments will produce expanding flows that are approximately homologous. As a result, both the velocity and the density of the interpenetrating plasma streams will be time dependent. The second issue is the implications of the linear theory of the Weibel instability. For the experiments, the instability is in a regime where standard simplifications do not apply. It appears feasible but non-trivial to obtain adequate growth. The third issue is collisionality. The need to keep resistive magnetic-field dissipation small enough implies that the plasmas should not be allowed to cool substantially. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Measurement of radiative shock properties by X-ray Thomson scattering

Physical Review Letters 108 (2012)

AJ Visco, RP Drake, SH Glenzer, T Döppner, G Gregori, DH Froula, MJ Grosskopf

X-ray Thomson scattering has enabled us to measure the temperature of a shocked layer, produced in the laboratory, that is relevant to shocks emerging from supernovas. High energy lasers are used to create a shock in argon gas which is probed by x-ray scattering. The scattered, inelastic Compton feature allows inference of the electron temperature. It is measured to be 34 eV in the radiative precursor and ∼60eV near the shock. Comparison of energy fluxes implied by the data demonstrates that the shock wave is strongly radiative. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Dynamical models of the Galaxy


PJ McMillan

A filamentation instability for streaming cosmic rays

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 419 (2012) 2433-2440

B Reville, AR Bell

We demonstrate that cosmic rays form filamentary structures in the precursors of supernova remnant shocks due to their self-generated magnetic fields. The cosmic ray filamentation results in the growth of a long-wavelength instability, and naturally couples the rapid non-linear amplification on small scales to larger length-scales. Hybrid magnetohydrodynamics-particle simulations are performed to confirm the effect. The resulting large-scale magnetic field may facilitate the scattering of high-energy cosmic rays as required to accelerate protons beyond the knee in the cosmic ray spectrum at supernova remnant shocks. Filamentation far upstream of the shock may also assist in the escape of cosmic rays from the accelerator. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS.