ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 570 (2014) ARTN A122
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 444 (2014) 3388-3407
Scientific reports 4 (2014) 5214-
Here, we report results of an experiment creating a transient, highly correlated carbon state using a combination of optical and x-ray lasers. Scattered x-rays reveal a highly ordered state with an electrostatic energy significantly exceeding the thermal energy of the ions. Strong Coulomb forces are predicted to induce nucleation into a crystalline ion structure within a few picoseconds. However, we observe no evidence of such phase transition after several tens of picoseconds but strong indications for an over-correlated fluid state. The experiment suggests a much slower nucleation and points to an intermediate glassy state where the ions are frozen close to their original positions in the fluid.
A local magnetic equilibrium solution is sought around the magnetic axis in order to identify the key parameters defining the magnetic-surface's up-down asymmetry in the core of tokamak plasmas. The asymmetry is found to be determined essentially by the ratio of the toroidal current density flowing on axis to the fraction of the external field's odd perturbation that manages to propagate from the plasma boundary into the core. The predictions are tested and illustrated first with an analytical Solovev equilibrium and then using experimentally relevant numerical equilibria. Hollow current-density distributions, and hence reverse magnetic shear, are seen to be crucial to bring into the core asymmetry values that are usually found only near the plasma edge.
We present numerical simulations of a 15 solar mass star in a suite of idealised environments in order to quantify the amount of energy transmitted to the interstellar medium (ISM). We include models of stellar winds, UV photoionisation and the subsequent supernova based on theoretical models and observations of stellar evolution. The system is simulated in 3D using RAMSES-RT, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement Radiation Hydrodynamics code. We find that stellar winds have a negligible impact on the system owing to their relatively low luminosity compared to the other processes. The main impact of photoionisation is to reduce the density of the medium into which the supernova explodes, reducing the rate of radiative cooling of the subsequent supernova. Finally, we present a grid of models quantifying the energy and momentum of the system that can be used to motivate simulations of feedback in the ISM unable to fully resolve the processes discussed in this work.
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for plasma turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order-by-order in this expansion, a framework for plasma turbulence is developed. It comprises an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equillibrium is obtained from the Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma and the slow (resistive) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the high-flow gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local cascade of free energy. Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical corrections and the fluctuations act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived. Total energy is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced by the action of fluxes flattening gradients, Ohmic heating, and the equilibration of mean temperatures. Finally, this framework is condensed, in the low-Mach-number limit, to a concise set of equations suitable for numerical implementation.
Papers on cosmic rays submitted to the 33nd International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rio de Janeiro 2013) by the IceCube Collaboration.
We present a new model of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation, concentrating on its angular anisotropies. While previous studies have focussed on either the variation of the emissivity on large (kpc) scales, or on fluctuations due to MHD turbulence in the interstellar medium, we unify these approaches to match the angular power spectrum. We note that the usual turbulence cascade calculation ignores spatial correlations at the injection scale due to compression of the interstellar medium by old supernova remnants -- the 'radio loops', only four of which are visible by eye in radio maps. This new component naturally provides the otherwise missing power on intermediate and small scales in the all-sky map at 408 MHz. Our model can enable more reliable subtraction of the synchrotron foreground for studies of CMB anisotropies (both in temperature and polarisation) or searches for dark matter annihilation. We conclude with some remarks on the relevance to modelling of the polarised foreground.
Physical Review Letters 111 (2013)
Magnetic reconnection in strongly magnetized (low-beta), weakly collisional plasmas is investigated by using a novel fluid-kinetic model [Zocco and Schekochihin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102309 (2011)] which retains nonisothermal electron kinetics. It is shown that electron heating via Landau damping (linear phase mixing) is the dominant dissipation mechanism. In time, electron heating occurs after the peak of the reconnection rate; in space, it is concentrated along the separatrices of the magnetic island. For sufficiently large systems, the peak reconnection rate is ≈0.2vABy,0, where v A is the Alfvén speed based on the reconnecting field B y,0. The island saturation width is the same as in magnetohydrodynamics models except for small systems, when it becomes comparable to the kinetic scales. © 2013 American Physical Society.
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory Part II: Atmospheric and Diffuse UHE Neutrino Searches of All Flavors
Papers on atmospheric and diffuse UHE neutrino searches of all flavors submitted to the 33nd International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rio de Janeiro 2013) by the IceCube Collaboration.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 432 (2013) 1796-1844
We present the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) ATLAS3D molecular gas imaging survey, a systematic study of the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in CO-rich early-type galaxies. Our full sample of 40 galaxies (30 newly mapped and 10 taken from the literature) is complete to a 12CO(1-0) integrated flux of 18.5 Jy km s-1,1 and it represents the largest, best studied sample of its type to date. A comparison of the CO distribution of each galaxy to the g - r colour image (representing dust) shows that the molecular gas and dust distributions are in good agreement and trace the same underlying interstellar medium. The galaxies exhibit a variety of CO morphologies, including discs (50 per cent), rings (15 per cent), bars+rings (10 per cent), spiral arms (5 per cent) and mildly (12.5 per cent) and strongly (7.5 per cent) disrupted morphologies. There appear to be weak trends between galaxy mass and CO morphology, whereby the most massive galaxies in the sample tend to have molecular gas in a disc morphology. We derive a lower limit to the total accreted molecular gas mass across the sample of 2.48 × 1010Mȯ, or approximately 8.3 × 108Mȯ per minor merger within the sample, consistent with minor merger stellar mass ratios. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Tidal streams don't, in general, delineate orbits. A stream-orbit misalignment is expected to lead to biases when using orbit-fitting to constrain models for the Galactic potential. In this first of two papers we discuss the expected magnitude of the misalignment and the resulting dangers of using orbit-fitting algorithms to constrain the potential. We summarize data for known streams which should prove useful for constraining the Galactic potential, and compute their actions in a realistic Galactic potential. We go on to discuss the formation of tidal streams in angle-action space, and explain why, in general, streams do not delineate orbits. The magnitude of the stream-orbit misalignment is quantified for a logarithmic potential and a multi-component Galactic potential. Specifically, we focus on the expected misalignment for the known streams. By introducing a two-parameter family of realistic Galactic potentials we demonstrate that assuming these streams delineate orbits can lead to order one errors in the halo flattening and halo-to-disc force ratio at the Sun. We present a discussion of the dependence of these results on the progenitor mass, and demonstrate that the misalignment is mass-independent for the range of masses of observed streams. Hence, orbit-fitting does not yield better constraints on the potential if one uses narrower, lower-mass streams.
In the first of these two papers we demonstrated that assuming streams delineate orbits can lead to order one errors in potential parameters for realistic Galactic potentials. Motivated by the need for an improvement on orbit-fitting, we now present an algorithm for constraining the Galactic potential using tidal streams without assuming that streams delineate orbits. This approach is independent of the progenitor mass so is valid for all observed tidal streams. The method makes heavy use of angle-action variables and seeks the potential which recovers the expected correlations in angle space. We demonstrate that the method can correctly recover the parameters of a simple two-parameter logarithmic potential by analysing an N-body simulation of a stream. We investigate the magnitude of the errors in observational data for which the method can still recover the correct potential and compare this to current and future errors in data. The errors in the observables of individual stars for current and near future data are shown to be too large for the direct use of this method, but when the data are averaged in bins on the sky, the resulting averaged data are accurate enough to constrain correctly the potential parameters for achievable observational errors. From pseudo-data with errors comparable to those that will be furnished in the era of Gaia (20 per cent distance errors, 1.2 mas/yr proper motion errors, and 10 km/s line-of-sight velocity errors) we recover the circular velocity, V_c=220 km/s, and the flattening of the potential, q=0.9, to be V_c=223+/-10km/s and q=0.91+/-0.09.
40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2013 European Physical Society (EPS) 2 (2013) 1098-1101
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 433 (2013) 2812-2839
We investigate nuclear light profiles in 135 ATLAS3D galaxies for which the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging is available and compare them to the large-scale kinematics obtained with the SAURONintegral-field spectrograph. Specific angular momentum, λR, correlateswith the shape of nuclear light profiles, where, as suggested by previous studies, cores are typically found in slow rotators and core-less galaxies are fast rotators. As also shown before, cores are found only in massive galaxies and only in systems with the stellar mass (measured via dynamical models) M ≳ 8 × 1010 M· Based on our sample, we, however, see no evidence for a bimodal distribution of nuclear slopes. The best predictor for finding a core is based on the stellar velocity dispersion within an effective radius, se, and specific angular momentum, where cores are found for λR ≲ 0.25 and σe ≳ 160 kms-1. We estimate that only about 10 per cent of nearby early-type galaxies contain cores. Furthermore, we show that there is a genuine population of fast rotators with cores. We also show that core fast rotators are morphologically, kinematically and dynamically different from core slow rotators. The cores of fast rotators, however, could harbour black holes of similar masses to those in core slow rotators, but typically more massive than those found in core-less fast rotators. Cores of both fast and slow rotators are made of old stars and found in galaxies typically lacking molecular or atomic gas (with a few exceptions). Core-less galaxies, and especially core-less fast rotators, are underluminous in the diffuse X-ray emission, but the presence of a core does not imply high X-ray luminosities. Additionally, we postulate (as many of these galaxies lack HST imaging) a possible population of core-less galaxies among slow rotators, which cannot be explained as face-on discs, but comprise a genuine sub-population of slow rotators. These galaxies are typically less massive and flatter than core slow rotators, and show evidence for dynamical cold structures and exponential photometric components. Based on our findings, major nondissipative (gas-poor) mergers together with black hole binary evolution may not be the only path for formation of cores in early-type galaxies. We discuss possible processes for formation of cores and their subsequent preservation. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
In cosmic ray air showers, the muon lateral separation from the center of the shower is a measure of the transverse momentum that the muon parent acquired in the cosmic ray interaction. IceCube has observed cosmic ray interactions that produce muons laterally separated by up to 400 m from the shower core, a factor of 6 larger distance than previous measurements. These muons originate in high pT (> 2 GeV/c) interactions from the incident cosmic ray, or high-energy secondary interactions. The separation distribution shows a transition to a power law at large values, indicating the presence of a hard pT component that can be described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. However, the rates and the zenith angle distributions of these events are not well reproduced with the cosmic ray models tested here, even those that include charm interactions. This discrepancy may be explained by a larger fraction of kaons and charmed particles than is currently incorporated in the simulations.
We develop a simple evolutionary scenario for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs), assuming growth due to accretion only, to learn about the evolution of the BH mass function from $z=3$ to 0 and from it calculate the energy budgets of different modes of feedback. We tune the parameters of the model by matching the derived X-ray luminosity function (XLF) with the observed XLF of active galactic nuclei. We then calculate the amount of comoving kinetic and bolometric feedback as a function of redshift, derive a kinetic luminosity function and estimate the amount of kinetic feedback and $PdV$ work done by classical double Fanaroff-Riley II (FR II) radio sources. We also derive the radio luminosity function for FR IIs from our synthesized population and set constraints on jet duty cycles. Around 1/6 of the jet power from FR II sources goes into $PdV$ work done in the expanding lobes during the time the jet is on. Anti hierarchical growth of BHs is seen in our model due to addition of an amount of mass being accreted on to all BHs independent of the BH mass. The contribution to the total kinetic feedback by active galaxies in a low accretion, kinetically efficient mode is found to be the most significant at $z<1.5$. FR II feedback is found to be a significant mode of feedback above redshifts $z\sim 1.5$, which has not been highlighted by previous studies.
Comparison between x-ray scattering and velocity-interferometry measurements from shocked liquid deuterium
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 87 (2013)
The equation of state of light elements is essential to understand the structure of Jovian planets and inertial confinement fusion research. The Omega laser was used to drive a planar shock wave in the cryogenically cooled deuterium, creating warm dense matter conditions. X-ray scattering was used to determine the spectrum near the boundary of the collective and noncollective scattering regimes using a narrow band x-ray source in backscattering geometry. Our scattering spectra are thus sensitive to the individual electron motion as well as the collective plasma behavior and provide a measurement of the electron density, temperature, and ionization state. Our data are consistent with velocity-interferometry measurements previously taken on the same shocked deuterium conditions and presented by K. Falk. This work presents a comparison of the two diagnostic systems and offers a detailed discussion of challenges encountered. ©2013 American Physical Society.
Impact of extended preplasma on energy coupling in kilojoule energy relativistic laser interaction with cone wire targets relevant to fast ignition
New Journal of Physics 15 (2013)
Cone-guided fast ignition laser fusion depends critically on details of the interaction of an intense laser pulse with the inside tip of a cone. Generation of relativistic electrons in the laser plasma interaction (LPI) with a gold cone and their subsequent transport into a copper wire have been studied using a kJ-class intense laser pulse, OMEGA EP (850 J, 10 ps). Weobserved that the laser-pulse-energy-normalized copper K signal from the Cu wire attached to the Au cone is significantly reduced (by a factor of 5) as compared to that from identical targets using the Titan laser (150 J, 0.7 ps) with 60 × less energy in the prepulse. We conclude that the decreased coupling is due to increased prepulse energy rather than 10 ps pulse duration, for which this effect has not been previously explored. The collisional particle-in-cell code PICLS demonstrates that the preformed plasma has a significant impact on generation of electrons and their transport. In particular, a longer scale length preplasma significantly reduces the energy coupling from the intense laser to the wire due to the larger offset distance between the relativistic critical density surface and the cone tip as well as a wider divergence of source electrons. We also observed that laser-driven plasma ionization increase in the LPI region can potentially alter the electron density profile during the laser interaction, forcing the electron source to be moved farther away from the cone tip which contributes to the reduction of energy coupling. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.