Publications


Velocity and abundance precisions for future high-resolution spectroscopic surveys: A study for 4MOST

Astronomische Nachrichten 334 (2012) 197-216

E Caffau, A Koch, L Sbordone, P Sartoretti, CJ Hansen, F Royer, N Leclerc, P Bonifacio, N Christlieb, H-G Ludwig, EK Grebel, RS de Jong, C Chiappini, J Walcher, S Mignot, S Feltzing, M Cohen, I Minchev, A Helmi, T Piffl, E Depagne, O Schnurr

In preparation for future, large-scale, multi-object, high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the Galaxy, we present a series of tests of the precision in radial velocity and chemical abundances that any such project can achieve at a 4 m class telescope. We briefly discuss a number of science cases that aim at studying the chemo-dynamical history of the major Galactic components (bulge, thin and thick disks, and halo) - either as a follow-up to the Gaia mission or on their own merits. Based on a large grid of synthetic spectra that cover the full range in stellar parameters of typical survey targets, we devise an optimal wavelength range and argue for a moderately high-resolution spectrograph. As a result, the kinematic precision is not limited by any of these factors, but will practically only suffer from systematic effects, easily reaching uncertainties <1 km s-1. Under realistic survey conditions (namely, considering stars brighter than r=16 mag with reasonable exposure times) we prefer an ideal resolving power of R˜20 000 on average, for an overall wavelength range (with a common two-arm spectrograph design) of [395;456.5] nm and [587;673] nm. We show for the first time on a general basis that it is possible to measure chemical abundance ratios to better than 0.1 dex for many species (Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Na, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Y, Ba, Nd, Eu) and to an accuracy of about 0.2 dex for other species such as Zr, La, and Sr. While our feasibility study was explicitly carried out for the 4MOST facility, the results can be readily applied to and used for any other conceptual design study for high-resolution spectrographs.


The Zero Turbulence Manifold in Fusion Plasmas

ArXiv (2012)

EG Highcock

The transport of heat that results from turbulence is a major factor limiting the temperature gradient, and thus the performance, of fusion devices. We use nonlinear simulations to show that a toroidal equilibrium scale sheared flow can completely suppress the turbulence across a wide range of flow gradient and temperature gradient values. We demonstrate the existence of a bifurcation across this range whereby the plasma may transition from a low flow gradient and temperature gradient state to a higher flow gradient and temperature gra- dient state. We show further that the maximum temperature gradient that can be reached by such a transition is limited by the existence, at high flow gradient, of subcritical turbulence driven by the parallel velocity gradient (PVG). We use linear simulations and analytic calculations to examine the properties of the transiently growing modes which give rise to this subcritical turbulence, and conclude that there may be a critical value of the ratio of the PVG to the suppressing perpendicular gradient of the velocity (in a tokamak this ratio is equal to q/{\epsilon} where q is the magnetic safety factor and {\epsilon} the inverse aspect ratio) below which the PVG is unable to drive subcritical turbulence. In light of this, we use nonlinear simulations to calculate, as a function of three parameters (the perpendicular flow shear, q/{\epsilon} and the temperature gradient), the surface within that parameter space which divides the regions where turbulence can and cannot be sustained: the zero- turbulence manifold. We are unable to conclude that there is in fact a critical value of q/{\epsilon} below which PVG-driven turbulence is eliminated. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that at low values of q/{\epsilon}, the maximum critical temperature gradient that can be reached without generating turbulence is dramatically increased.


Inelastic x-ray scattering from shocked liquid deuterium

Physical Review Letters 109 (2012)

SP Regan, K Falk, G Gregori, PB Radha, SX Hu, TR Boehly, BJB Crowley, SH Glenzer, OL Landen, DO Gericke, T Döppner, DD Meyerhofer, CD Murphy, TC Sangster, J Vorberger

The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation - driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. These first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Angular momentum transfer to a Milky Way disk at high redshift

ArXiv (2012)

H Tillson, J Devriendt, A Slyz, L Miller, C Pichon

An Adaptive Mesh Refinement cosmological resimulation is analyzed in order to test whether filamentary flows of cold gas are responsible for the build-up of angular momentum within a Milky Way like disk at z>=3. A set of algorithms is presented that takes advantage of the high spatial resolution of the simulation (12 pc) to identify: (i) the central gas disk and its plane of orientation; (ii) the complex individual filament trajectories that connect to the disk, and; (iii) the infalling satellites. The results show that two filaments at z>5.5, which later merge to form a single filament at z<4, drive the angular momentum and mass budget of the disk throughout its evolution, whereas luminous satellite mergers make negligible fractional contributions. Combined with the ubiquitous presence of such filaments in all large-scale cosmological simulations that include hydrodynamics, these findings provide strong quantitative evidence that the growth of thin disks in haloes with masses below 10^{12} M_{sun}, which host the vast majority of galaxies, is supported via inflowing streams of cold gas at intermediate and high redshifts.


Diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification

Space Science Reviews 173 (2012) 491-519

KM Schure, AR Bell, L O'C Drury, AM Bykov

Diffusive shock acceleration is the theory of particle acceleration through multiple shock crossings. In order for this process to proceed at a rate that can be reconciled with observations of high-energy electrons in the vicinity of the shock, and for cosmic rays protons to be accelerated to energies up to observed galactic values, significant magnetic field amplification is required. In this review we will discuss various theories on how magnetic field amplification can proceed in the presence of a cosmic ray population. On both short and long length scales, cosmic ray streaming can induce instabilities that act to amplify the magnetic field. Developments in this area that have occurred over the past decade are the main focus of this paper. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


The Radius of Baryonic Collapse in Disc Galaxy Formation

ArXiv (2012)

SA Kassin, J Devriendt, SM Fall, RSD Jong, B Allgood, JR Primack

In the standard picture of disc galaxy formation, baryons and dark matter receive the same tidal torques, and therefore approximately the same initial specific angular momentum. However, observations indicate that disc galaxies typically have only about half as much specific angular momentum as their dark matter haloes. We argue this does not necessarily imply that baryons lose this much specific angular momentum as they form galaxies. It may instead indicate that galaxies are most directly related to the inner regions of their host haloes, as may be expected in a scenario where baryons in the inner parts of haloes collapse first. A limiting case is examined under the idealised assumption of perfect angular momentum conservation. Namely, we determine the density contrast Delta, with respect to the critical density of the Universe, by which dark matter haloes need to be defined in order to have the same average specific angular momentum as the galaxies they host. Under the assumption that galaxies are related to haloes via their characteristic rotation velocities, the necessary Delta is ~600. This Delta corresponds to an average halo radius and mass which are ~60% and ~75%, respectively, of the virial values (i.e., for Delta = 200). We refer to this radius as the radius of baryonic collapse R_BC, since if specific angular momentum is conserved perfectly, baryons would come from within it. It is not likely a simple step function due to the complex gastrophysics involved, therefore we regard it as an effective radius. In summary, the difference between the predicted initial and the observed final specific angular momentum of galaxies, which is conventionally attributed solely to angular momentum loss, can more naturally be explained by a preference for collapse of baryons within R_BC, with possibly some later angular momentum transfer.


Lyman-alpha emission properties of simulated galaxies: interstellar medium structure and inclination effects

ArXiv (2012)

A Verhamme, Y Dubois, J Blaizot, T Garel, R Bacon, J Devriendt, B Guiderdoni, A Slyz

[abridged] Aims. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of the interstellar medium (ISM) physics on Lyman-alpha (Lya) radiation transfer and to quantify how galaxy orientation with respect to the line of sight alters observational signatures. Methods. We compare the results of Lya radiation transfer calculations through the ISM of a couple of idealized galaxy simulations with different ISM models. Results. First, the small-scale structuration of the ISM plays a determinant role in shaping a galaxys Lya properties.The artificially warm, and hence smooth, ISM of G1 yields an escape fraction of 50 percent at the Lya line center, and produces symmetrical double-peak profiles. On the contrary, in G2, most young stars are embedded in thick star-forming clouds, and the result is a 10 times lower escape fraction. G2 also displays a stronger outflowing velocity field, which favors the escape of red-shifted photons, resulting in an asymmetric Lya line. Second, the Lya properties of G2 strongly depend on the inclination at which it is observed: From edge-on to face-on, the line goes from a double-peak profile with an equivalent width of -5 Angstrom to a 15 times more luminous red-shifted asymmetric line with EW 90 Angstrom. Conclusions. Lya radiation transfer calculations can only lead to realistic properties in simulations where galaxies are resolved into giant molecular clouds, putting these calculations out of reach of current large scale cosmological simulations. Finally, we find inclination effects to be much stronger for Lya photons than for continuum radiation. This could potentially introduce severe biases in the selection function of narrow-band Lya emitter surveys, which could indeed miss a significant fraction of the high-z galaxy population.


Self-organized electromagnetic field structures in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

Nature Physics (2012)

NL Kugland, DD Ryutov, P-Y Chang, RP Drake, G Fiksel, DH Froula, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, M Grosskopf, M Koenig, Y Kuramitsu, C Kuranz, MC Levy, E Liang, J Meinecke, F Miniati, T Morita, A Pelka, C Plechaty, R Presura, A Ravasio, BA Remington, B Reville, JS Ross, Y Sakawa, A Spitkovsky, H Takabe, H-S Park


Measurement and physical interpretation of the mean motion of turbulent density patterns detected by the beam emission spectroscopy system on the mega amp spherical tokamak

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 54 (2012)

Y-C Ghim, AR Field, D Dunai, S Zoletnik, L Bardóczi, AA Schekochihin

The mean motion of turbulent patterns detected by a two-dimensional beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic on the mega amp spherical tokamak (MAST) is determined using a cross-correlation time delay method. Statistical reliability of the method is studied by means of synthetic data analysis. The experimental measurements on MAST indicate that the apparent mean poloidal motion of the turbulent density patterns in the lab frame arises because the longest correlation direction of the patterns (parallel to the local background magnetic fields) is not parallel to the direction of the fastest mean plasma flows (usually toroidal when strong neutral-beam injection is present). This effect is particularly pronounced in a spherical tokamak because of the relatively large mean rotation and large magnetic pitch angle. The experimental measurements are consistent with the mean motion of plasma being toroidal. The sum of all other contributions (mean poloidal plasma flow, phase velocity of the density patterns in the plasma frame, non-linear effects, etc) to the apparent mean poloidal velocity of the density patterns is found to be negligible. These results hold in all investigated L-mode, H-mode and internal transport barrier discharges. The one exception is a high-poloidal-beta (the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field energy density) discharge, where a large magnetic island exists. In this case BES detects very little motion. This effect is currently theoretically unexplained. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies.

Nature 484 (2012) 485-488

M Cappellari, RM McDermid, K Alatalo, L Blitz, M Bois, F Bournaud, M Bureau, AF Crocker, RL Davies, TA Davis, PT de Zeeuw, PA Duc, E Emsellem, S Khochfar, D Krajnović, H Kuntschner, PY Lablanche, R Morganti, T Naab, T Oosterloo, M Sarzi, N Scott, P Serra, AM Weijmans, LM Young

Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars, which depends on the present number of each type of star in the galaxy. The present number depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which describes the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed, and knowledge of it is critical to almost every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than 50 years after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal among different types of galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot both be universal, but they could not convincingly discriminate between the two possibilities. Only recently were indications found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as the Milky Way. Here we report a study of the two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the large representative ATLAS(3D) sample of nearby early-type galaxies spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, using detailed dynamical models. We find a strong systematic variation in IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratios, producing differences of a factor of up to three in galactic stellar mass. This implies that a galaxy's IMF depends intimately on the galaxy's formation history.


Constraining stellar assembly and active galactic nucleus feedback at the peak epoch of star formation

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 425 (2012) L96-L100

T Kimm, S Kaviraj, JEG Devriendt, SH Cohen, RA Windhorst, Y Dubois, A Slyz, NP Hathi, RRE Jr, RW O'Connell, MA Dopita, J Silk


Feeding compact bulges and supermassive black holes with low angular momentum cosmic gas at high redshift

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 423 (2012) 3616-3630

Y Dubois, C Pichon, M Haehnelt, T Kimm, A Slyz, J Devriendt, D Pogosyan

We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to show that a significant fraction of the gas in high redshift rare massive haloes falls nearly radially to their very centre on extremely short time-scales. This process results in the formation of very compact bulges with specific angular momentum a factor of 5-30 smaller than the average angular momentum of the baryons in the whole halo. Such low angular momentum originates from both segregation and effective cancellation when the gas flows to the centre of the halo along well-defined cold filamentary streams. These filaments penetrate deep inside the halo and connect to the bulge from multiple rapidly changing directions. Structures falling in along the filaments (satellite galaxies) or formed by gravitational instabilities triggered by the inflow (star clusters) further reduce the angular momentum of the gas in the bulge. Finally, the fraction of gas radially falling to the centre appears to increase with the mass of the halo; we argue that this is most likely due to an enhanced cancellation of angular momentum in rarer haloes which are fed by more isotropically distributed cold streams. Such an increasingly efficient funnelling of low angular momentum gas to the centre of very massive haloes at high redshift may account for the rapid pace at which the most massive supermassive black holes grow to reach observed masses around 10 9M ⊙ at an epoch when the Universe is barely 1 Gyr old. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Feeding compact bulges and supermassive black holes with low angular-momentum cosmic gas at high redshift

ArXiv (2011)

Y Dubois, C Pichon, M Haehnelt, T Kimm, A Slyz, J Devriendt, D Pogosyan

We use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to show that a significant fraction of the gas in high redshift rare massive halos falls nearly radially to their very centre on extremely short timescales. This process results in the formation of very compact bulges with specific angular momentum a factor 5-30$smaller than the average angular momentum of the baryons in the whole halo. Such low angular momentum originates both from segregation and effective cancellation when the gas flows to the centre of the halo along well defined cold filamentary streams. These filaments penetrate deep inside the halo and connect to the bulge from multiple rapidly changing directions. Structures falling in along the filaments (satellite galaxies) or formed by gravitational instabilities triggered by the inflow (star clusters) further reduce the angular momentum of the gas in the bulge. Finally, the fraction of gas radially falling to the centre appears to increase with the mass of the halo; we argue that this is most likely due to an enhanced cancellation of angular momentum in rarer halos which are fed by more isotropically distributed cold streams. Such an increasingly efficient funnelling of low-angular momentum gas to the centre of very massive halos at high redshift may account for the rapid pace at which the most massive supermassive black holes grow to reach observed masses around $10^9$M$_\odot$ at an epoch when the Universe is barely 1 Gyr old.


Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet/heating AGN feedback mechanism: methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

ArXiv (2011)

Y Dubois, J Devriendt, A Slyz, R Teyssier

We develop a new sub-grid model for the growth of supermassive Black Holes (BHs) and their associated Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates onto the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the coevolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be the only physical mechanism able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of halos/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion of cold material in the early Universe that drives Eddington-limited accretion onto BHs. Quasar activity is also enhanced at high redshift. However, as structures grow in mass and lose their cold material through star formation and efficient BH feedback ejection, the AGN activity in the low-redshift Universe becomes more and more dominated by the radio mode, which powers jets through the hot circum-galactic medium.


Self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes by a dual jet-heating active galactic nucleus feedback mechanism: Methods, tests and implications for cosmological simulations

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 420 (2012) 2662-2683

Y Dubois, J Devriendt, A Slyz, R Teyssier

We develop a subgrid model for the growth of supermassive black holes (BHs) and their associated active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. This model transposes previous attempts to describe BH accretion and AGN feedback with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique to the adaptive mesh refinement framework. It also furthers their development by implementing a new jet-like outflow treatment of the AGN feedback which we combine with the heating mode traditionally used in the SPH approach. Thus, our approach allows one to test the robustness of the conclusions derived from simulating the impact of self-regulated AGN feedback on galaxy formation vis-à-vis the numerical method. Assuming that BHs are created in the early stages of galaxy formation, they grow by mergers and accretion of gas at a Eddington-limited Bondi accretion rate. However this growth is regulated by AGN feedback which we model using two different modes: a quasar-heating mode when accretion rates on to the BHs are comparable to the Eddington rate, and a radio-jet mode at lower accretion rates which not only deposits energy, but also deposits mass and momentum on the grid. In other words, our feedback model deposits energy as a succession of thermal bursts and jet outflows depending on the properties of the gas surrounding the BHs. We assess the plausibility of such a model by comparing our results to observational measurements of the co-evolution of BHs and their host galaxy properties, and check their robustness with respect to numerical resolution. We show that AGN feedback must be a crucial physical ingredient for the formation of massive galaxies as it appears to be able to efficiently prevent the accumulation of and/or expel cold gas out of haloes/galaxies and significantly suppress star formation. Our model predicts that the relationship between BHs and their host galaxy mass evolves as a function of redshift, because of the vigorous accretion of cold material in the early Universe that drives Eddington-limited accretion on to BHs. Quasar activity is also enhanced at high redshift. However, as structures grow in mass and lose their cold material through star formation and efficient BH feedback ejection, the AGN activity in the low-redshift Universe becomes more and more dominated by the radio mode, which powers jets through the hot circumgalactic medium. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Angle-action estimation in a general axisymmetric potential

ArXiv (2012)

J Sanders

The usefulness of angle-action variables in galaxy dynamics is well known, but their use is limited due to the difficulty of their calculation in realistic galaxy potentials. Here we present a method for estimating angle-action variables in a realistic Milky Way axisymmetric potential by locally fitting a St\"ackel potential over the region an orbit probes. The quality of the method is assessed by comparison with other known methods for estimating angle-action variables of a range of disc and halo-type orbits. We conclude by projecting the Geneva-Copenhagen survey into angle-action space.


Generation of scaled protogalactic seed magnetic fields in laser-produced shock waves

Nature 481 (2012) 480-483

G Gregori, A Ravasio, CD Murphy, K Schaar, A Baird, AR Bell, A Benuzzi-Mounaix, R Bingham, C Constantin, RP Drake, M Edwards, ET Everson, CD Gregory, Y Kuramitsu, W Lau, J Mithen, C Niemann, H-S Park, BA Remington, B Reville, APL Robinson, DD Ryutov, Y Sakawa, S Yang, NC Woolsey, M Koenig, F Miniati

The standard model for the origin of galactic magnetic fields is through the amplification of seed fields via dynamo or turbulent processes to the level consistent with present observations. Although other mechanisms may also operate, currents from misaligned pressure and temperature gradients (the Biermann battery process) inevitably accompany the formation of galaxies in the absence of a primordial field. Driven by geometrical asymmetries in shocks associated with the collapse of protogalactic structures, the Biermann battery is believed to generate tiny seed fields to a level of about 10 -21 gauss (refs 7, 8). With the advent of high-power laser systems in the past two decades, a new area of research has opened in which, using simple scaling relations, astrophysical environments can effectively be reproduced in the laboratory. Here we report the results of an experiment that produced seed magnetic fields by the Biermann battery effect. We show that these results can be scaled to the intergalactic medium, where turbulence, acting on timescales of around 700 million years, can amplify the seed fields sufficiently to affect galaxy evolution. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Global gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of MAST plasmas

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 54 (2012)

S Saarelma, P Hill, A Bottino, G Colyer, AR Field, B McMillan, A Peeters, CM Roach

Electrostatic gyrokinetic analyses are presented for an L-mode discharge with an internal transport barrier, from the spherical tokamak, MAST. Local and global microstability analysis finds similar linear growth rates for ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven modes. When the electron response is assumed to be adiabatic, growth rates are found to be lower than the experimental E×B flow shearing rate. Including kinetic electrons, without collisions, increases the ITG growth rates above the flow shearing rate, and these modes are found to be linearly unstable in the outer part of the plasma only. In global simulations the flow shear stabilization is found to be asymmetric with respect to the direction of the flow: there is a small destabilizing effect at low flow shear when the flow is in the co-direction. Global non-linear simulations with kinetic electrons and including the flow shear effects predict turbulent ion heat transport that is well above the neoclassical level in the region outside the internal transport barrier in this MAST plasma. In non-linear simulations we also find turbulence extending from the outer part of the plasma into the linearly stable core region. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Molecular Dynamics Simulations for the Shear Viscosity of the One-Component Plasma

CONTRIBUTIONS TO PLASMA PHYSICS 52 (2012) 58-61

JP Mithen, J Daligault, G Gregori


The opto-mechanical design of HARMONI: A first light integral field spectrograph for the E-ELT

Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 8446 (2012)

NA Thatte, M Tecza, D Freeman, AM Gallie, D Montgomery, F Clarke, AB Fragoso-Lopez, J Fuentes, F Gago, A Garcia, F Gracia, J Kosmalski, J Lynn, D Sosa, S Arribas, R Bacon, RL Davies, T Fusco, D Lunney, E Mediavilla, A Remillieux, H Schnetler

HARMONI is a visible and near-IR integral field spectrograph, providing the E-ELT's spectroscopic capability at first light. It obtains simultaneous spectra of 32000 spaxels, at a range of resolving powers from R∼4000 to R∼20000, covering the wavelength range from 0.47 to 2.45 ìm. The 256 ? 128 spaxel field of view has four different plate scales, with the coarsest scale (40 mas) providing a 5? ? 10? FoV, while the finest scale is a factor of 10 finer (4mas). We describe the opto-mechanical design of HARMONI, prior to the start of preliminary design, including the main subsystems - namely the image de-rotator, the scale-changing optics, the splitting and slicing optics, and the spectrographs. We also present the secondary guiding system, the pupil imaging optics, the field and pupil stops, the natural guide star wavefront sensor, and the calibration unit. © 2012 SPIE.