Publications


Measurement of the $ν_e$ and Total $^{8}$B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase-III Data Set

ArXiv (2011)

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, JF Amsbaugh, JM Anaya, AE Anthony, J Banar, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, TJ Bowles, MC Browne, TV Bullard, TH Burritt, B Cai, YD Chan, D Chauhan, M Chen, BT Cleveland, GA Cox, CA Currat, X Dai, H Deng, JA Detwiler, M DiMarco, PJ Doe, G Doucas, MR Dragowsky, PL Drouin, CA Duba, FA Duncan, M Dunford, ED Earle, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, MM Fowler, N Gagnon, JV Germani, A Goldschmidt, JTM Goon, K Graham, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, AA Hamian, GC Harper, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, KM Heeger, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, R Henning, A Hime, C Howard, MA Howe, M Huang, P Jagam, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, KJ Keeter, JR Klein, LL Kormos, M Kos, A Krueger, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, R Lange, J Law, IT Lawson, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, JC Loach, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, SR McGee, C Mifflin, GG Miller, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, B Morissette, AW Myers, BG Nickel, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, NS Oblath, RW Ollerhead, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, E Rollin, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, JJ Simpson, P Skensved, MWE Smith, TJ Sonley, TD Steiger, LC Stonehill, G Tesic, PM Thornewell, N Tolich, T Tsui, CD Tunnell, TV Wechel, RV Berg, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, BL Wall, D Waller, HWC Tseung, J Wendland, N West, JB Wilhelmy, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, JM Wouters, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber

This paper details the solar neutrino analysis of the 385.17-day Phase-III data set acquired by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). An array of $^3$He proportional counters was installed in the heavy-water target to measure precisely the rate of neutrino-deuteron neutral-current interactions. This technique to determine the total active $^8$B solar neutrino flux was largely independent of the methods employed in previous phases. The total flux of active neutrinos was measured to be $5.54^{+0.33}_{-0.31}(stat.)^{+0.36}_{-0.34}(syst.)\times 10^{6}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, consistent with previous measurements and standard solar models. A global analysis of solar and reactor neutrino mixing parameters yielded the best-fit values of $\Delta m^2 = 7.59^{+0.19}_{-0.21}\times 10^{-5}{eV}^2$ and $\theta = 34.4^{+1.3}_{-1.2}$ degrees.


Combined Analysis of all Three Phases of Solar Neutrino Data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

ArXiv (2011)

SNO Collaboration, B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, AE Anthony, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, B Cai, YD Chan, D Chauhan, M Chen, BT Cleveland, GA Cox, X Dai, H Deng, JA Detwiler, M DiMarco, PJ Doe, G Doucas, PL Drouin, FA Duncan, M Dunford, ED Earle, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, N Gagnon, JTM Goon, K Graham, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, A Hime, C Howard, M Huang, P Jagam, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, M Jerkins, KJ Keeter, JR Klein, LL Kormos, M Kos, C Kraus, CB Krauss, A Kruger, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, R Lange, J Law, IT Lawson, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, JC Loach, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, SR McGee, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, BG Nickel, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, NS Oblath, RW Ollerhead, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, RC Rosten, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, JJ Simpson, P Skensved, TJ Sonley, LC Stonehill, G Tešić, N Tolich, T Tsui, RV Berg, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, HWC Tseung, DL Wark, PJS Watson, J Wendland, N West, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, JM Wouters, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber

We report results from a combined analysis of solar neutrino data from all phases of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. By exploiting particle identification information obtained from the proportional counters installed during the third phase, this analysis improved background rejection in that phase of the experiment. The combined analysis resulted in a total flux of active neutrino flavors from 8B decays in the Sun of (5.25 \pm 0.16(stat.)+0.11-0.13(syst.))\times10^6 cm^{-2}s^{-1}. A two-flavor neutrino oscillation analysis yielded \Deltam^2_{21} = (5.6^{+1.9}_{-1.4})\times10^{-5} eV^2 and tan^2{\theta}_{12}= 0.427^{+0.033}_{-0.029}. A three-flavor neutrino oscillation analysis combining this result with results of all other solar neutrino experiments and the KamLAND experiment yielded \Deltam^2_{21} = (7.41^{+0.21}_{-0.19})\times10^{-5} eV^2, tan^2{\theta}_{12} = 0.446^{+0.030}_{-0.029}, and sin^2{\theta}_{13} = (2.5^{+1.8}_{-1.5})\times10^{-2}. This implied an upper bound of sin^2{\theta}_{13} < 0.053 at the 95% confidence level (C.L.).


Characterization and simulation of the response of Multi-Pixel Photon Counters to low light levels

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment (2011)

A Vacheret, GJ Barker, M Dziewiecki, P Guzowski, MD Haigh, B Hartfiel, A Izmaylov, W Johnston, M Khabibullin, A Khotjantsev, Y Kudenko, R Kurjata, T Kutter, T Lindner, P Masliah, J Marzec, O Mineev, Y Musienko, S Oser, F Retière, RO Salih, A Shaikhiev, LF Thompson, MA Ward, RJ Wilson, N Yershov, K Zaremba, M Ziembicki


Improved Search for Muon-Neutrino to Electron-Neutrino Oscillations in MINOS

PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 107 (2011) ARTN 181802

P Adamson, DJ Auty, DS Ayres, C Backhouse, G Barr, M Betancourt, M Bishai, A Blake, GJ Bock, DJ Boehnlein, D Bogert, SV Cao, S Cavanaugh, D Cherdack, S Childress, JAB Coelho, L Corwin, D Cronin-Hennessy, IZ Danko, JK de Jong, NE Devenish, MV Diwan, M Dorman, CO Escobar, J Evans, E Falk, GJ Feldman, MV Frohne, HR Gallagher, RA Gomes, MC Goodman, P Gouffon, N Graf, R Gran, K Grzelak, A Habig, J Hartnell, R Hatcher, A Himmel, A Holin, X Huang, J Hylen, GM Irwin, Z Isvan, DE Jaffe, C James, D Jensen, T Kafka, SMS Kasahara, G Koizumi, S Kopp, M Kordosky, A Kreymer, K Lang, G Lefeuvre, J Ling, PJ Litchfield, L Loiacono, P Lucas, WA Mann, ML Marshak, M Mathis, N Mayer, AM McGowan, R Mehdiyev, JR Meier, MD Messier, DG Michael, WH Miller, SR Mishra, J Mitchell, CD Moore, L Mualem, S Mufson, J Musser, D Naples, JK Nelson, HB Newman, RJ Nichol, JA Nowak, JP Ochoa-Ricoux, WP Oliver, M Orchanian, J Paley, RB Patterson, G Pawloski, GF Pearce, S Phan-Budd, RK Plunkett, X Qiu, J Ratchford, B Rebel, C Rosenfeld, HA Rubin, MC Sanchez, J Schneps, A Schreckenberger, P Schreiner, P Shanahan, R Sharma, A Sousa, N Tagg, RL Talaga, J Thomas, MA Thomson, R Toner, D Torretta, G Tzanakos, J Urheim, P Vahle, B Viren, JJ Walding, A Weber, RC Webb, C White, L Whitehead, SG Wojcicki, T Yang, R Zwaska


Observation in the MINOS far detector of the shadowing of cosmic rays by the sun and moon

Astroparticle Physics 34 (2011) 457-466

DS Ayres, S Budd, MC Goodman, X Huang, AM McGowan, J Paley, J Reichenbacher, MC Sanchez, RL Talaga, JL Thron, C Andreopoulos, G Tzanakos, MV Frohne, P Schreiner, M Bishai, MV Diwan, DE Jaffe, B Viren, L Whitehead, BC Choudhary, A Himmel, DG Michael, L Mualem, HB Newman, M Orchanian, RB Patterson, A Blake, JS Marshall, J Mitchell, MA Thomson, R Toner, P Adamson, GJ Bock, DJ Boehnlein, D Bogert, S Childress, D Harris, R Hatcher, J Hylen, C James, D Jensen, G Koizumi, A Kreymer, P Lucas, CD Moore, RK Plunkett, B Rebel, P Shanahan, R Zwaska, RA Gomes, S Cavanaugh, GJ Feldman, A Sousa, JK De Jong, HA Rubin, C White, C Bower, L Corwin, N Mayer, MD Messier, S Mufson, J Musser, J Urheim, VA Ryabov, DM Wright, M Dorman, JJ Evans, A Holin, M Kordosky, RJ Nichol, J Thomas, P Vahle, D Cronin-Hennessy, EW Grashorn, SMS Kasahara, Z Krahn, PJ Litchfield, ML Marshak, JR Meier, WH Miller, EA Peterson, M Strait, B Bock, R Gran, A Habig, N Tagg, C Backhouse, G Barr, JH Cobb, K Grzelak, RP Litchfield, R Pittam, TM Raufer, PA Rodrigues, G Tinti, A Weber, IZ Danko, Z Isvan, D Naples, VK Semenov, A Godley, J Ling, SR Mishra, C Rosenfeld, N Grant, J Hartnell, J Ilic, TC Nicholls, GF Pearce, GM Irwin, G Pawloski, SG Wojcicki, T Yang, NE Devenish, E Falk, PG Harris, G Lefeuvre, RC Webb, S Kopp, K Lang, L Loiacono, R Mehdiyev, J Ratchford, D Cherdack, HR Gallagher, T Kafka, WA Mann, WP Oliver, J Schneps, JAB Coelho, CO Escobar, P Gouffon, WL Barrett, SJ Coleman, JK Nelson

The shadowing of cosmic ray primaries by the moon and sun was observed by the MINOS far detector at a depth of 2070 mwe using 83.54 million cosmic ray muons accumulated over 1857.91 live-days. The shadow of the moon was detected at the 5.6 σ level and the shadow of the sun at the 3.8 σ level using a log-likelihood search in celestial coordinates. The moon shadow was used to quantify the absolute astrophysical pointing of the detector to be 0.17 ± 0.12°. Hints of interplanetary magnetic field effects were observed in both the sun and moon shadow. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Measurement of the underground atmospheric muon charge ratio using the MINOS near detector

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 83 (2011)

DS Ayres, S Budd, TH Fields, MC Goodman, X Huang, AM McGowan, J Paley, J Reichenbacher, MC Sanchez, RL Talaga, G Tzanakos, MV Frohne, P Schreiner, M Bishai, MV Diwan, DE Jaffe, J Ling, B Viren, L Whitehead, A Himmel, DG Michael, L Mualem, HB Newman, M Orchanian, RB Patterson, A Blake, J Mitchell, MA Thomson, R Toner, JAB Coelho, CO Escobar, P Adamson, GJ Bock, DJ Boehnlein, D Bogert, S Childress, BC Choudhary, D Harris, R Hatcher, J Hylen, C James, D Jensen, G Koizumi, A Kreymer, P Lucas, CD Moore, J Morfín, RK Plunkett, B Rebel, N Saoulidou, P Shanahan, R Zwaska, RA Gomes, S Cavanaugh, GJ Feldman, A Sousa, JK De Jong, N Graf, HA Rubin, C White, L Corwin, N Mayer, MD Messier, S Mufson, J Musser, J Urheim, VA Ryabov, DM Wright, M Dorman, JJ Evans, A Holin, RJ Nichol, J Thomas, D Cronin-Hennessy, SMS Kasahara, Z Krahn, PJ Litchfield, ML Marshak, JR Meier, WH Miller, JA Nowak, M Strait, P Bhattarai, R Gran, A Habig, N Tagg, C Backhouse, G Barr, R Pittam, PA Rodrigues, G Tinti, A Weber, IZ Danko, Z Isvan, D Naples, C Andreopoulos, N Grant, J Hartnell, J Ilic, GF Pearce, TM Raufer, P Gouffon, SR Mishra, C Rosenfeld, GM Irwin, G Pawloski, X Qiu, SG Wojcicki, T Yang, DJ Auty, NE Devenish, E Falk, PG Harris, G Lefeuvre, RC Webb, S Kopp, K Lang, L Loiacono, R Mehdiyev, J Ratchford, D Cherdack, HR Gallagher, T Kafka, WA Mann, WP Oliver, J Schneps, K Grzelak, WL Barrett, SJ Coleman, D Damiani, M Kordosky, JK Nelson, P Vahle

The magnetized MINOS Near Detector, at a depth of 225 mwe, is used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio. The ratio of observed positive to negative atmospheric muon rates, using 301 days of data, is measured to be 1.266±0.001(stat)-0.014+0.015(syst). This measurement is consistent with previous results from other shallow underground detectors and is 0.108±0.019(stat+syst) lower than the measurement at the functionally identical MINOS Far Detector at a depth of 2070 mwe. This increase in charge ratio as a function of depth is consistent with an increase in the fraction of muons arising from kaon decay for increasing muon surface energies. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Calibration of the Neutral Current Detection Array in the SNO experiment

Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements 221 (2011) 384-384

J Wendland, J Law, D Reitzner, GA Cox, BT Cleveland, M Di Marco, HC Evans, E Guillian, AL Hallin, M Huang, C Howard, NA Jelley, JC Loach, HM O'Keeffe, C Kraus, CB Krauss, S McGee, SJM Peeters, G Prior, K Rielage, P Skensved

Since November 25th, 2004, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has been taking production data in its third and final phase. For this phase a 'Neutral-Current Detection (NCD) Array', consisting of 36 strings of He proportional counters and 4 strings of He proportional counters, was deployed in SNO's D O volume. It supplements the Cherenkov detector, consisting of 9456 photomultiplier tubes, present in the previous two phases by offering an independent measurement of the solar neutral current rate. The He counters detect neutrons from neutrino-deuteron neutral current interactions in the D O. We describe the calibration of this array. © 2011.


Determining the Low Energy Backgrounds at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements 221 (2011) 381-381

HM O'Keeffe, NA Jelley, B Aharmim, J Farine, R Ford, JTM Goon, SR Seibert

Naturally occurring radioisotopes can produce neutrons by photodisintegration and Cherenkov events via beta/gamma decays. The techniques used to measure the radioisotopes in the heavy water target and light water shield in the third phase of SNO is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


LOW-MULTIPLICITY BURST SEARCH AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 728 (2011) ARTN 83

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, AE Anthony, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, B Cai, YD Chan, D Chauhan, M Chen, BT Cleveland, X Dai, H Deng, J Detwiler, G Doucas, P-L Drouin, FA Duncan, M Dunford, ED Earle, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, N Gagnon, JTM Goon, K Graham, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, A Hime, C Howard, M Huang, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, M Jerkins, JR Klein, M Kos, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, J Law, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, JC Loach, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, BG Nickel, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, NS Oblath, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, JJ Simpson, D Sinclair, P Skensved, TJ Sonley, LC Stonehill, G Tesic, N Tolich, T Tsui, R Van Berg, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, HWC Tseung, PJS Watson, N West, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber, SNO Collaboration


The T2K near detector data acquisition systems

Conference Record - 2010 17th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference, RT10 (2010)

M Thorpe, C Angelsen, C Metelko, T Nicholls, G Pearce, G Barr, N West

T2K is a second generation long-baseline experiment in Japan, designed to perform precision studies of neutrino oscillations. A neutrino beam originating at the J-PARC facility is sampled by two near detectors, approximately 280m distant from the source and directed towards the Kamioka underground facility, 295km distant, where the Super-Kamiokande water Cerenkov detector is situated. Both the on-axis (INGRID) and off-axis (ND280) near detectors employ the MIDAS framework for their data acquisition systems. Events are selected via a flexible hardware trigger, which allows mixed operating modes incorporating beam spill, cosmic and calibration triggers. Data are acquired from the front-end electronics over optical gigabit Ethernet links by custom MIDAS front-end applications distributed over a cluster of Linux computers. Event fragments from all sub-detectors are merged and logged on a central backend processor and then copied to remote storage for longterm archival. The system is also designed to allow flexible partitioning of sub-detectors for standalone diagnostics and calibration. We present the design of the DAQ system and report on experience gathered during early operation of the near detectors. © 2010 IEEE.


The calibration of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory using uniformly distributed radioactive sources

ArXiv (2009)

K Boudjemline, B Cai, BT Cleveland, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, RJ Ford, E Guillian, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, C Howard, P Jagam, NA Jelley, KJ Keeter, JR Klein, C Kraus, CB Krauss, R Lange, IT Lawson, JR Leslie, JC Loach, AB McDonald, G McGregor, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, RGH Robertson, VL Rusu, SR Seibert, P Skensved, MJ Thomson

The production and analysis of distributed sources of 24Na and 222Rn in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) are described. These unique sources provided accurate calibrations of the response to neutrons, produced through photodisintegration of the deuterons in the heavy water target, and to low energy betas and gammas. The application of these sources in determining the neutron detection efficiency and response of the 3He proportional counter array, and the characteristics of background Cherenkov light from trace amounts of natural radioactivity is described.


SEARCHES FOR HIGH-FREQUENCY VARIATIONS IN THE B-8 SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 710 (2010) 540-548

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, AE Anthony, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, TH Burritt, B Cai, YD Chan, D Chauhan, M Chen, BT Cleveland, GA Cox, X Dai, H Deng, J Detwiler, M DiMarco, PJ Doe, G Doucas, P-L Drouin, CA Duba, FA Duncan, M Dunford, ED Earle, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, N Gagnon, JTM Goon, K Graham, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, A Hime, C Howard, MA Howe, M Huang, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, KJ Keeter, JR Klein, LL Kormos, M Kos, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, J Law, IT Lawson, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, I Levine, JC Loach, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, S McGee, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, B Morissette, BG Nickel, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, NS Oblath, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, D Sinclair, P Skensved, TJ Sonley, LC Stonehill, G Tesic, N Tolich, T Tsui, CD Tunnell, R Van Berg, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, BL Wall, D Waller, HWC Tseung, DL Wark, PJS Watson, N West, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, JM Wouters, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber


Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurements with the MINOS near detector

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 81 (2010)

DS Ayres, MC Goodman, AM McGowan, MC Sanchez, RL Talaga, P Stamoulis, G Tzanakos, M Zois, MV Frohne, P Schreiner, M Bishai, MV Diwan, DE Jaffe, B Viren, L Whitehead, K Zhang, BC Choudhary, A Himmel, DG Michael, L Mualem, HB Newman, JP Ochoa-Ricoux, RB Patterson, A Blake, JD Chapman, AJ Culling, JS Marshall, J Mitchell, MA Thomson, R Toner, JAB Coelho, CO Escobar, P Adamson, GJ Bock, DJ Boehnlein, D Bogert, S Childress, D Harris, R Hatcher, J Hylen, C James, D Jensen, G Koizumi, A Kreymer, P Lucas, CD Moore, J Morfín, RK Plunkett, RA Rameika, B Rebel, N Saoulidou, P Shanahan, W Smart, R Zwaska, S Cavanaugh, GJ Feldman, A Sousa, JK De Jong, HA Rubin, C White, R Armstrong, C Bower, N Mayer, MD Messier, S Mufson, J Musser, J Paley, J Urheim, M Dorman, JJ Evans, A Holin, M Kordosky, DJ Koskinen, RJ Nichol, C Smith, J Thomas, P Vahle, KE Arms, D Cronin-Hennessy, EW Grashorn, K Heller, SMS Kasahara, Z Krahn, PJ Litchfield, ML Marshak, JR Meier, WH Miller, DA Petyt, M Strait, R Gran, A Habig, N Tagg, C Backhouse, G Barr, K Grzelak, RP Litchfield, R Pittam, TM Raufer, PA Rodrigues, G Tinti, A Weber, N West, D Bhattacharya, IZ Danko, Z Isvan, D Naples, V Paolone, C Andreopoulos, J Hartnell, CJ Metelko, TC Nicholls, GF Pearce, P Gouffon, A Godley, JJ Kim, J Ling, SR Mishra, A Rahaman, C Rosenfeld, GM Irwin, G Pawloski, SG Wojcicki, T Yang, DJ Auty, NE Devenish, E Falk, PG Harris, M Watabe, RC Webb, S Kopp, K Lang, L Loiacono, J Ma, R Mehdiyev, T Osiecki, R Ospanov, Ž Pavlović, D Cherdack, HR Gallagher, T Kafka, WA Mann, WP Oliver, J Schneps, SJ Coleman, JK Nelson, PD Barnes, DM Wright, WL Barrett, AR Erwin, VA Ryabov, VA Tsarev, VK Semenov

The energy dependence of the neutrino-iron and antineutrino-iron inclusive charged-current cross sections and their ratio have been measured using a high-statistics sample with the MINOS near detector exposed to the NuMI beam from the main injector at Fermilab. Neutrino and antineutrino fluxes were determined using a low hadronic energy subsample of charged-current events. We report measurements of ν-Fe (ν̄-Fe) cross section in the energy range 3-50 GeV (5-50 GeV) with precision of 2%-8% (3%-9%) and their ratio which is measured with precision 2%-8%. The data set spans the region from low energy, where accurate measurements are sparse, up to the high-energy scaling region where the cross section is well understood. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Characterization of the 1.3 × 1.3 mm MPPC for the T2K near detectors

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 623 (2010) 201-203

A Vacheret

A new MPPC has been produced by Hamamatsu Photonics for the near detectors of the T2K experiment. We characterized the response of the new device and measured all the main parameters and their dependence on over-voltage and temperature. We present in this paper measurements of crosstalk, after-pulsing and photon detection efficiency. A set of models built on these measurements have been implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation to describe the MPPC response. A very good agreement is found between data and Monte Carlo at various voltages for low light level. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Development of multi-pixel photon counters for the T2K long baseline neutrino experiment

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 623 (2010) 321-323

D Orme, N Nagai, A Minamino, T Nakaya, M Yokoyama, T Nakadaira, T Murakami, M Tanaka, F Retiere, A Vacheret, Y Kudenko

We have developed a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) with Hamamatsu Photonics for use in the TokaiKamioka (T2K) long baseline neutrino experiment. A total of 60,000 MPPCs will be used in the T2K near detector, the first time that MPPCs have been used on such a large scale. We have created a test bench to measure the gain, noise rate, crosstalk and afterpulse rate, and photon detection efficiency of 17,686 of these MPPCs. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Low-energy-threshold analysis of the Phase I and Phase II data sets of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

PHYSICAL REVIEW C 81 (2010) ARTN 055504

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, AE Anthony, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, TH Burritt, B Cai, YD Chan, D Chauhan, M Chen, BT Cleveland, GA Cox, X Dai, H Deng, J Detwiler, M DiMarco, PJ Doe, G Doucas, P-L Drouin, CA Duba, FA Duncan, M Dunford, ED Earle, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, N Gagnon, JT Goon, K Graham, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, A Hime, C Howard, MA Howe, M Huang, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, KJ Keeter, JR Klein, LL Kormos, M Kos, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, J Law, IT Lawson, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, I Levine, JC Loach, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, S McGee, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, B Morissette, BG Nickel, AJ Noble, HM O'Keeffe, NS Oblath, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, SD Reitzner, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, D Sinclair, P Skensved, TJ Sonley, LC Stonehill, G Tesic, N Tolich, T Tsui, CD Tunnell, R Van Berg, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, BL Wall, D Waller, HWC Tseung, DL Wark, N West, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, JM Wouters, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber, SNO Collaboration


Impact of after-pulse, pixel crosstalk and recovery time in multi-pixel photon counter response

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 610 (2009) 370-373

MA Ward, A Vacheret

The photon detection efficiency (PDE) and response linearity of Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) is presented at 470 and at 500 nm coupled with wavelength shifting fibre. It is found that crosstalk and after-pulse increase artificially the PDE as much as 30% (relative). PDE increase with gain is found to be 2.5 % / 10. An empirical fit based on simple statistical assumptions is being developed and allows for some prediction of the fraction of nuisance parameters in the linearity response although experimental conditions are not completely modelled and are in the process of being tuned using a Monte Carlo simulation. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Characterization of Multi Pixel Photon Counters for T2K Near Detector

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 610 (2009) 378-380

F Retière, P Kitching, Y Du, S Foreman, A Kostin, T Lindner, M Low, I Moult, S Oser, H Tanaka, P Masliah, A Vacheret

The T2K Near Detector (ND280) will be equipped with about 50,000 Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs). Because it is the first time that these devices are being used in such a large quantity in a physics experiment, MPPCs have not been characterized in detail yet. These proceedings focus on investigating the MPPC response to low light level by characterizing quantitatively all the relevant phenomena, especially cross-talk and after-pulsing. Monte Carlo simulations of the MPPC response including all the relevant phenomena agree well with the data. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Measurement of the cosmic ray and neutrino-induced muon flux at the Sudbury neutrino observatory

PHYSICAL REVIEW D 80 (2009) ARTN 012001

B Aharmim, SN Ahmed, TC Andersen, AE Anthony, N Barros, EW Beier, A Bellerive, B Beltran, M Bergevin, SD Biller, K Boudjemline, MG Boulay, TH Burritt, B Cai, YD Chan, M Chen, MC Chon, BT Cleveland, GA Cox-Mobrand, CA Currat, X Dai, F Dalnoki-Veress, H Deng, J Detwiler, PJ Doe, RS Dosanjh, G Doucas, P-L Drouin, FA Duncan, M Dunford, SR Elliott, HC Evans, GT Ewan, J Farine, H Fergani, F Fleurot, RJ Ford, JA Formaggio, N Gagnon, JTM Goon, K Graham, DR Grant, E Guillian, S Habib, RL Hahn, AL Hallin, ED Hallman, CK Hargrove, PJ Harvey, R Hazama, KM Heeger, WJ Heintzelman, J Heise, RL Helmer, RJ Hemingway, R Henning, A Hime, C Howard, MA Howe, M Huang, B Jamieson, NA Jelley, JR Klein, M Kos, A Krueger, C Kraus, CB Krauss, T Kutter, CCM Kyba, R Lange, J Law, IT Lawson, KT Lesko, JR Leslie, I Levine, JC Loach, S Luoma, R MacLellan, S Majerus, HB Mak, J Maneira, AD Marino, R Martin, N McCauley, AB McDonald, S McGee, C Mifflin, ML Miller, B Monreal, J Monroe, AJ Noble, NS Oblath, CE Okada, HM O'Keeffe, Y Opachich, GDO Gann, SM Oser, RA Ott, SJM Peeters, AWP Poon, G Prior, K Rielage, BC Robertson, RGH Robertson, E Rollin, MH Schwendener, JA Secrest, SR Seibert, O Simard, JJ Simpson, D Sinclair, P Skensved, MWE Smith, TJ Sonley, TD Steiger, LC Stonehill, N Tagg, G Tesic, N Tolich, T Tsui, RG Van de Water, BA VanDevender, CJ Virtue, D Waller, CE Waltham, HWC Tseung, DL Wark, P Watson, J Wendland, N West, JF Wilkerson, JR Wilson, JM Wouters, A Wright, M Yeh, F Zhang, K Zuber


Application of Hamamatsu MPPCs to T2K neutrino detectors

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 610 (2009) 128-130

M Yokoyama, T Nakaya, S Gomi, A Minamino, N Nagai, K Nitta, D Orme, M Otani, T Murakami, T Nakadaira, M Tanaka, Y Kudenko, F Retiere, A Vacheret

A special type of Hamamatsu Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), with a sensitive area of 1.3 × 1.3 mm containing 667 pixels of size 50 × 50 μ m each, has been developed for the near neutrino detector in the T2K long baseline neutrino experiment. About 60 000 MPPCs will be used in total to read out the plastic scintillator detectors with wavelength shifting fibers. We report on the basic performance of MPPCs produced for T2K. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.