Bell's conspiracy, Schrodinger's black cat and global invariant sets.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 373 (2015)

TN Palmer

A locally causal hidden-variable theory of quantum physics need not be constrained by the Bell inequalities if this theory also partially violates the measurement independence condition. However, such violation can appear unphysical, implying implausible conspiratorial correlations between the hidden variables of particles being measured and earlier determinants of instrumental settings. A novel physically plausible explanation for such correlations is proposed, based on the hypothesis that states of physical reality lie precisely on a non-computational measure-zero dynamically invariant set in the state space of the universe: the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate. To illustrate the relevance of the concept of a global invariant set, a simple analogy is considered where a massive object is propelled into a black hole depending on the decay of a radioactive atom. It is claimed that a locally causal hidden-variable theory constrained by the Cosmological Invariant Set Postulate can violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality without being conspiratorial, superdeterministic, fine-tuned or retrocausal, and the theory readily accommodates the classical compatibilist notion of (experimenter) free will.

The real butterfly effect

NONLINEARITY 27 (2014) R123-R141

TN Palmer, A Doering, G Seregin

Build high-resolution global climate models

NATURE 515 (2014) 338-339

T Palmer

It's all just physics

PHYSICS WORLD 27 (2014) 18-19

T Palmer

Visualizing the uncertainty in the relationship between seasonal average climate and malaria risk.

Scientific reports 4 (2014) 7264-

DA MacLeod, AP Morse

Around $1.6 billion per year is spent financing anti-malaria initiatives, and though malaria morbidity is falling, the impact of annual epidemics remains significant. Whilst malaria risk may increase with climate change, projections are highly uncertain and to sidestep this intractable uncertainty, adaptation efforts should improve societal ability to anticipate and mitigate individual events. Anticipation of climate-related events is made possible by seasonal climate forecasting, from which warnings of anomalous seasonal average temperature and rainfall, months in advance are possible. Seasonal climate hindcasts have been used to drive climate-based models for malaria, showing significant skill for observed malaria incidence. However, the relationship between seasonal average climate and malaria risk remains unquantified. Here we explore this relationship, using a dynamic weather-driven malaria model. We also quantify key uncertainty in the malaria model, by introducing variability in one of the first order uncertainties in model formulation. Results are visualized as location-specific impact surfaces: easily integrated with ensemble seasonal climate forecasts, and intuitively communicating quantified uncertainty. Methods are demonstrated for two epidemic regions, and are not limited to malaria modeling; the visualization method could be applied to any climate impact.

Stochastic modelling and energy-efficient computing for weather and climate prediction.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 372 (2014) 20140118-

T Palmer, P Düben, H McNamara

On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 372 (2014) 20130276-

PD Düben, J Joven, A Lingamneni, H McNamara, G De Micheli, KV Palem, TN Palmer

Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

Towards seasonal forecasting of malaria in India.

Malaria journal 13 (2014) 310-

JM Lauderdale, C Caminade, AE Heath, AE Jones, DA MacLeod, KC Gouda, US Murty, P Goswami, SR Mutheneni, AP Morse

Malaria presents public health challenge despite extensive intervention campaigns. A 30-year hindcast of the climatic suitability for malaria transmission in India is presented, using meteorological variables from a state of the art seasonal forecast model to drive a process-based, dynamic disease model.The spatial distribution and seasonal cycles of temperature and precipitation from the forecast model are compared to three observationally-based meteorological datasets. These time series are then used to drive the disease model, producing a simulated forecast of malaria and three synthetic malaria time series that are qualitatively compared to contemporary and pre-intervention malaria estimates. The area under the Relative Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is calculated as a quantitative metric of forecast skill, comparing the forecast to the meteorologically-driven synthetic malaria time series.The forecast shows probabilistic skill in predicting the spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum incidence when compared to the simulated meteorologically-driven malaria time series, particularly where modelled incidence shows high seasonal and interannual variability such as in Orissa, West Bengal, and Jharkhand (North-east India), and Gujarat, Rajastan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra (North-west India). Focusing on these two regions, the malaria forecast is able to distinguish between years of "high", "above average" and "low" malaria incidence in the peak malaria transmission seasons, with more than 70% sensitivity and a statistically significant area under the ROC curve. These results are encouraging given that the three month forecast lead time used is well in excess of the target for early warning systems adopted by the World Health Organization. This approach could form the basis of an operational system to identify the probability of regional malaria epidemics, allowing advanced and targeted allocation of resources for combatting malaria in India.

Benchmark Tests for Numerical Weather Forecasts on Inexact Hardware

MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW 142 (2014) 3809-3829

PD Dueben, TN Palmer

The character of polar tidal signatures in the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model

Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 (2014) 5928-5948

J Du, WE Ward, FC Cooper

More reliable forecasts with less precise computations: a fast-track route to cloud-resolved weather and climate simulators?

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 372 (2014) 20130391-

TN Palmer

This paper sets out a new methodological approach to solving the equations for simulating and predicting weather and climate. In this approach, the conventionally hard boundary between the dynamical core and the sub-grid parametrizations is blurred. This approach is motivated by the relatively shallow power-law spectrum for atmospheric energy on scales of hundreds of kilometres and less. It is first argued that, because of this, the closure schemes for weather and climate simulators should be based on stochastic-dynamic systems rather than deterministic formulae. Second, as high-wavenumber elements of the dynamical core will necessarily inherit this stochasticity during time integration, it is argued that the dynamical core will be significantly over-engineered if all computations, regardless of scale, are performed completely deterministically and if all variables are represented with maximum numerical precision (in practice using double-precision floating-point numbers). As the era of exascale computing is approached, an energy- and computationally efficient approach to cloud-resolved weather and climate simulation is described where determinism and numerical precision are focused on the largest scales only.

Lorenz, Godel and Penrose: new perspectives on determinism and causality in fundamental physics

CONTEMPORARY PHYSICS 55 (2014) 157-178

TN Palmer

Climate forecasting: build high-resolution global climate models.

Nature 515 (2014) 338-339

T Palmer

Genesis of streamwise-localized solutions from globally periodic traveling waves in pipe flow.

Phys Rev Lett 112 (2014) 164501-

M Chantry, AP Willis, RR Kerswell

The aim in the dynamical systems approach to transitional turbulence is to construct a scaffold in phase space for the dynamics using simple invariant sets (exact solutions) and their stable and unstable manifolds. In large (realistic) domains where turbulence can coexist with laminar flow, this requires identifying exact localized solutions. In wall-bounded shear flows, the first of these has recently been found in pipe flow, but questions remain as to how they are connected to the many known streamwise-periodic solutions. Here we demonstrate that the origin of the first localized solution is in a modulational symmetry-breaking Hopf bifurcation from a known global traveling wave that has twofold rotational symmetry about the pipe axis. Similar behavior is found for a global wave of threefold rotational symmetry, this time leading to two localized relative periodic orbits. The clear implication is that many global solutions should be expected to lead to more realistic localized counterparts through such bifurcations, which provides a constructive route for their generation.

Studying edge geometry in transiently turbulent shear flows

Journal of Fluid Mechanics 747 (2014) 506-517

M Chantry, TM Schneider

On the reliability of seasonal climate forecasts.

Journal of the Royal Society, Interface 11 (2014) 20131162-

A Weisheimer, TN Palmer

Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1-5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that 'goodness' should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a '5' should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of 'goodness' rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching '5' across all regions and variables in 30 years time.

The Structure and Evolution of Heat Waves in Southeastern Australia

Journal of Climate 27 (2014) 5768-5785

TJ Parker, GJ Berry, MJ Reeder

Modes of climate variability and heat waves in Victoria, southeastern Australia

Geophysical Research Letters 41 (2014) 6926-6934

TJ Parker, GJ Berry, MJ Reeder, N Nicholls

Rift valley fever outbreaks in Mauritania and related environmental conditions

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (2014) 903-918

C Caminade, JA Ndione, M Diallo, DA Macleod, O Faye, Y Ba, I Dia, AP Morse

How Does the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Affect the Stratospheric Polar Vortex?


PAG Watson, LJ Gray