Publications


New distances to RAVE stars

ArXiv (2013)

J Binney, B Burnett, G Kordopatis, PJ McMillan, S Sharma, T Zwitter, O Bienayme, J Bland-Hawthorn, M Steinmetz, G Gilmore, MEK Williams, J Navarro, EK Grebel, A Helmi, Q Parker, WA Reid, G Seabroke, F Watson, RFG Wyse

Probability density functions are determined from new stellar parameters for the distance moduli of stars for which the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) has obtained spectra with S/N>=10. Single-Gaussian fits to the pdf in distance modulus suffice for roughly half the stars, with most of the other half having satisfactory two-Gaussian representations. As expected, early-type stars rarely require more than one Gaussian. The expectation value of distance is larger than the distance implied by the expectation of distance modulus; the latter is itself larger than the distance implied by the expectation value of the parallax. Our parallaxes of Hipparcos stars agree well with the values measured by Hipparcos, so the expectation of parallax is the most reliable distance indicator. The latter are improved by taking extinction into account. The effective temperature absolute-magnitude diagram of our stars is significantly improved when these pdfs are used to make the diagram. We use the method of kinematic corrections devised by Schoenrich, Binney & Asplund to check for systematic errors for general stars and confirm that the most reliable distance indicator is the expectation of parallax. For cool dwarfs and low-gravity giants <pi> tends to be larger than the true distance by up to 30 percent. The most satisfactory distances are for dwarfs hotter than 5500 K. We compare our distances to stars in 13 open clusters with cluster distances from the literature and find excellent agreement for the dwarfs and indications that we are over-estimating distances to giants, especially in young clusters.


Search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos with the IceCube 40-string detector

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 84 (2011)

R Abbasi, Y Abdou, T Abu-Zayyad, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, K Andeen, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, R Bay, JL Bazo Alba, K Beattie, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JK Becker, K-H Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, J Berdermann, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, AM Brown, S Buitink, KS Caballero-Mora, M Carson, D Chirkin, B Christy, J Clem, F Clevermann, S Cohen, C Colnard, DF Cowen, MV D'Agostino, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, C De Clercq, L Demirörs, T Denger, O Depaepe, F Descamps, P Desiati, G De Vries-Uiterweerd, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dierckxsens, J Dreyer, JP Dumm, R Ehrlich, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, O Engdegård, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, MM Foerster, BD Fox, A Franckowiak, R Franke, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, JA Goodman, D Gora, D Grant, T Griesel, A Groß, S Grullon, M Gurtner, C Ha, A Hajismail, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Han, K Hanson, D Heinen, K Helbing, P Herquet, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, A Homeier, K Hoshina, D Hubert, W Huelsnitz, J-P Hülß, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, J Jacobsen, GS Japaridze, H Johansson, JM Joseph, K-H Kampert, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, P Kenny, J Kiryluk, F Kislat, SR Klein, J-H Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, T Kowarik, M Krasberg, T Krings, G Kroll, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, S Lafebre, K Laihem, H Landsman, MJ Larson, R Lauer, J Lünemann, J Madsen, P Majumdar, A Marotta, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, K Meagher, M Merck, P Mészáros, T Meures, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, T Montaruli, R Morse, SM Movit, R Nahnhauer, JW Nam, U Naumann, P Nießen, DR Nygren, S Odrowski, A Olivas, M Olivo, A O'Murchadha, M Ono, S Panknin, L Paul, C Pérez De Los Heros, J Petrovic, A Piegsa, D Pieloth, R Porrata, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, K Rawlins, P Redl, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, A Rizzo, JP Rodrigues, P Roth, F Rothmaier, C Rott, T Ruhe, D Rutledge, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, H-G Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, T Schmidt, A Schönwald, A Schukraft, A Schultes, O Schulz, M Schunck, D Seckel, B Semburg, SH Seo, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, A Silvestri, A Slipak, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, G Stephens, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stössl, S Stoyanov, EA Strahler, T Straszheim, M Stür, GW Sullivan, Q Swillens, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, D Tosi, D Turčan, N Van Eijndhoven, J Vandenbroucke, A Van Overloop, J Van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, M Walter, C Weaver, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, R Wischnewski, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, C Xu, XW Xu, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, M Zoll

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a 1km3 detector currently taking data at the South Pole. One of the main strategies used to look for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube is the search for a diffuse flux of high-energy neutrinos from unresolved sources. A hard energy spectrum of neutrinos from isotropically distributed astrophysical sources could manifest itself as a detectable signal that may be differentiated from the atmospheric neutrino background by spectral measurement. This analysis uses data from the IceCube detector collected in its half completed configuration which operated between April 2008 and May 2009 to search for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos. A total of 12877 upward-going candidate neutrino events have been selected for this analysis. No evidence for a diffuse flux of astrophysical muon neutrinos was found in the data set leading to a 90% C.L. upper limit on the normalization of an E -2 astrophysical νμ flux of 8.9×10 -9GeVcm-2s-1sr-1. The analysis is sensitive in the energy range between 35 TeV and 7 PeV. The 12877 candidate neutrino events are consistent with atmospheric muon neutrinos measured from 332 GeV to 84 TeV and no evidence for a prompt component to the atmospheric neutrino spectrum is found. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Improvement in Fast Particle Track Reconstruction with Robust Statistics

ArXiv (2013)

MG Aartsen, R Abbasi, Y Abdou, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JB Tjus, KH Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, DZ Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, S Bohaichuk, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, L Brayeur, HP Bretz, AM Brown, R Bruijn, J Brunner, M Carson, J Casey, M Casier, D Chirkin, A Christov, B Christy, K Clark, F Clevermann, S Coenders, S Cohen, DF Cowen, AHC Silva, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, M Day, CD Clercq, SD Ridder, P Desiati, KDD Vries, MD With, T DeYoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dunkman, R Eagan, B Eberhardt, J Eisch, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, S Flis, A Franckowiak, K Frantzen, T Fuchs, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, G Golup, JG Gonzalez, JA Goodman, D Góra, DT Grandmont, D Grant, A Groß, C Ha, AH Ismail, P Hallen, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Heereman, D Heinen, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, R Hoffmann, A Homeier, K Hoshina, W Huelsnitz, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, J Jacobsen, K Jagielski, GS Japaridze, K Jero, O Jlelati, B Kaminsky, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, J Kiryluk, J Kläs, SR Klein, JH Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, M Krasberg, K Krings, G Kroll, J Kunnen, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, H Landsman, MJ Larson, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, J Leute, J Lünemann, O Macías, J Madsen, G Maggi, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, F McNally, K Meagher, M Merck, T Meures, S Miarecki, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, L Mohrmann, T Montaruli, R Morse, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, H Niederhausen, SC Nowicki, DR Nygren, A Obertacke, S Odrowski, A Olivas, A Omairat, A O'Murchadha, L Paul, JA Pepper, CPDL Heros, C Pfendner, D Pieloth, E Pinat, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, C Ré, B Recht, P Redl, R Reimann, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, M Richman, B Riedel, JP Rodrigues, C Rott, T Ruhe, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, SM Saba, T Salameh, HG Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, F Scheriau, T Schmidt, M Schmitz, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, A Schönwald, A Schukraft, L Schulte, O Schulz, D Seckel, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, R Shanidze, C Sheremata, MWE Smith, D Soldin, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, NA Stanisha, A Stasik, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stößl, EA Strahler, R Ström, GW Sullivan, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, G Tešić, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, E Unger, M Usner, S Vallecorsa, NV Eijndhoven, AV Overloop, JV Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, M Vraeghe, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, C Weaver, M Wellons, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, DL Xu, XW Xu, JP Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, J Ziemann, S Zierke, M Zoll

The IceCube project has transformed one cubic kilometer of deep natural Antarctic ice into a Cherenkov detector. Muon neutrinos are detected and their direction inferred by mapping the light produced by the secondary muon track inside the volume instrumented with photomultipliers. Reconstructing the muon track from the observed light is challenging due to noise, light scattering in the ice medium, and the possibility of simultaneously having multiple muons inside the detector, resulting from the large flux of cosmic ray muons. This manuscript describes work on two problems: (1) the track reconstruction problem, in which, given a set of observations, the goal is to recover the track of a muon; and (2) the coincident event problem, which is to determine how many muons are active in the detector during a time window. Rather than solving these problems by developing more complex physical models that are applied at later stages of the analysis, our approach is to augment the detectors early reconstruction with data filters and robust statistical techniques. These can be implemented at the level of on-line reconstruction and, therefore, improve all subsequent reconstructions. Using the metric of median angular resolution, a standard metric for track reconstruction, we improve the accuracy in the initial reconstruction direction by 13%. We also present improvements in measuring the number of muons in coincident events: we can accurately determine the number of muons 98% of the time.


Conditions for up-down asymmetry in the core of tokamak equilibria

ArXiv (2013)

P Rodrigues, NF Loureiro, J Ball, FI Parra

A local magnetic equilibrium solution is sought around the magnetic axis in order to identify the key parameters defining the magnetic-surface's up-down asymmetry in the core of tokamak plasmas. The asymmetry is found to be determined essentially by the ratio of the toroidal current density flowing on axis to the fraction of the external field's odd perturbation that manages to propagate from the plasma boundary into the core. The predictions are tested and illustrated first with an analytical Solovev equilibrium and then using experimentally relevant numerical equilibria. Hollow current-density distributions, and hence reverse magnetic shear, are seen to be crucial to bring into the core asymmetry values that are usually found only near the plasma edge.


Plasmoid and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in Sweet-Parker current sheets

ArXiv (2012)

NF Loureiro, AA Schekochihin, DA Uzdensky

A 2D linear theory of the instability of Sweet-Parker (SP) current sheets is developed in the framework of Reduced MHD. A local analysis is performed taking into account the dependence of a generic equilibrium profile on the outflow coordinate. The plasmoid instability [Loureiro et al, Phys. Plasmas {\bf 14}, 100703 (2007)] is recovered, i.e., current sheets are unstable to the formation of a large-wave-number chain of plasmoids ($k_{\rm max}\Lsheet \sim S^{3/8}$, where $k_{\rm max}$ is the wave-number of fastest growing mode, $S=\Lsheet V_A/\eta$ is the Lundquist number, $\Lsheet$ is the length of the sheet, $V_A$ is the Alfv\'en speed and $\eta$ is the plasma resistivity), which grows super-Alfv\'enically fast ($\gmax\tau_A\sim S^{1/4}$, where $\gmax$ is the maximum growth rate, and $\tau_A=\Lsheet/V_A$). For typical background profiles, the growth rate and the wave-number are found to {\it increase} in the outflow direction. This is due to the presence of another mode, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which is triggered at the periphery of the layer, where the outflow velocity exceeds the Alfv\'en speed associated with the upstream magnetic field. The KH instability grows even faster than the plasmoid instability, $\gmax \tau_A \sim k_{\rm max} \Lsheet\sim S^{1/2}$. The effect of viscosity ($\nu$) on the plasmoid instability is also addressed. In the limit of large magnetic Prandtl numbers, $Pm=\nu/\eta$, it is found that $\gmax\sim S^{1/4}Pm^{-5/8}$ and $k_{\rm max} \Lsheet\sim S^{3/8}Pm^{-3/16}$, leading to the prediction that the critical Lundquist number for plasmoid instability in the $Pm\gg1$ regime is $\Scrit\sim 10^4Pm^{1/2}$. These results are verified via direct numerical simulation of the linearized equations, using a new, analytical 2D SP equilibrium solution.


Evidence for high-energy extraterrestrial neutrinos at the icecube detector

Science 342 (2013)

MG Aartsen, R Abbasi, Y Abdou, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, S Bohaichuk, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, L Brayeur, H-P Bretz, AM Brown, R Bruijn, J Brunner, M Carson, J Casey, M Casier, D Chirkin, A Christov, B Christy, K Clark, F Clevermann, S Coenders, S Cohen, DF Cowen, AH Cruz Silva, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, M Day, C De Clercq, S De Ridder, P Desiati, KD De Vries, M De With, T DeYoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dunkman, R Eagan, B Eberhardt, B Eichmann, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, S Flis, A Franckowiak, K Frantzen, T Fuchs, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, G Golup, JG Gonzalez, JA Goodman, D Góra, DT Grandmont, D Grant, A Groß, C Ha, A Haj Ismail, P Hallen, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Heereman, D Heinen, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, R Hoffmann, A Homeier, K Hoshina, W Huelsnitz, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, J Jacobsen, K Jagielski, GS Japaridze, K Jero, O Jlelati, B Kaminsky, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, J Kiryluk, J Kläs, SR Klein, J-H Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, M Krasberg, K Krings, G Kroll, J Kunnen, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, H Landsman, MJ Larson, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, J Leute, J Lünemann, J Madsen, G Maggi, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, F McNally, K Meagher, M Merck, T Meures, S Miarecki, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, L Mohrmann, T Montaruli, R Morse, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, H Niederhausen, SC Nowicki, DR Nygren, A Obertacke, S Odrowski, A Olivas, A O'Murchadha, L Paul, JA Pepper, C De Pérez Los Heros, C Pfendner, D Pieloth, E Pinat, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, P Redl, R Reimann, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, M Richman, B Riedel, JP Rodrigues, C Rott, T Ruhe, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, SM Saba, T Salameh, H-G Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, F Scheriau, T Schmidt, M Schmitz, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, A Schönwald, A Schukraft, L Schulte, O Schulz, D Seckel, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, R Shanidze, C Sheremata, MWE Smith, D Soldin, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, A Stasik, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stößl, EA Strahler, R Ström, GW Sullivan, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, G Tešić, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, E Unger, M Usner, N Van Eijndhoven, A Van Overloop, J Van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, M Vraeghe, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, C Weaver, M Wellons, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, DL Xu, XW Xu, JP Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, J Ziemann, S Zierke, M Zoll

We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage down to about 30 TeV. Twenty-six additional events were observed, substantially more than expected from atmospheric backgrounds. Combined, both searches reject a purely atmospheric origin for the 28 events at the 4σ level. These 28 events, which include the highest energy neutrinos ever observed, have flavors, directions, and energies inconsistent with those expected from the atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. These properties are, however, consistent with generic predictions for an additional component of extraterrestrial origin.


Multiscale Gyrokinetics for Rotating Tokamak Plasmas: Fluctuations, Transport and Energy Flows

ArXiv (2012)

IG Abel, GG Plunk, E Wang, M Barnes, SC Cowley, W Dorland, AA Schekochihin

This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for plasma turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order-by-order in this expansion, a framework for plasma turbulence is developed. It comprises an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equillibrium is obtained from the Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma and the slow (resistive) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the high-flow gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local cascade of free energy. Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical corrections and the fluctuations act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived. Total energy is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced by the action of fluxes flattening gradients, Ohmic heating, and the equilibration of mean temperatures. Finally, this framework is condensed, in the low-Mach-number limit, to a concise set of equations suitable for numerical implementation.


Analysing surveys of our Galaxy - II. Determining the potential

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 433 (2013) 1411-1424

PJ McMillan, JJ Binney


FLASH hydrodynamic simulations of experiments to explore the generation of cosmological magnetic fields

High Energy Density Physics 9 (2013) 75-81

A Scopatz, M Fatenejad, N Flocke, G Gregori, M Koenig, DQ Lamb, D Lee, J Meinecke, A Ravasio, P Tzeferacos, K Weide, R Yurchak

We report the results of FLASH hydrodynamic simulations of the experiments conducted by the University of Oxford High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics group and its collaborators at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation de Lasers Intenses (LULI). In these experiments, a long-pulse laser illuminates a target in a chamber filled with Argon gas, producing shock waves that generate magnetic fields via the Biermann battery mechanism. The simulations show that the result of the laser illuminating the target is a series of complex hydrodynamic phenomena. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Universal behaviour of shock precursors in the presence of efficient cosmic ray acceleration

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 430 (2013) 2873-

B Reville, AR Bell


Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

ISVHECRI 2012 - XVII INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VERY HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAY INTERACTIONS 52 (2013)

S Sarkar


The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE): Third Data Release

ArXiv (2011)

A Siebert, MEK Williams, A Siviero, W Reid, C Boeche, M Steinmetz, J Fulbright, U Munari, T Zwitter, FG Watson, RFG Wyse, RSD Jong, H Enke, B Anguiano, D Burton, CJP Cass, K Fiegert, M Hartley, A Ritter, KS Russel, M Stupar, O Bienayme, KC Freeman, G Gilmore, EK Grebel, A Helmi, JF Navarro, J Binney, J Bland-Hawthorn, R Campbell, B Famaey, O Gerhard, BK Gibson, G Matijevic, QA Parker, GM Seabroke, S Sharma, MC Smith, EWD Boer

We present the third data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) which is the first milestone of the RAVE project, releasing the full pilot survey. The catalog contains 83,072 radial velocity measurements for 77,461 stars in the southern celestial hemisphere, as well as stellar parameters for 39,833 stars. This paper describes the content of the new release, the new processing pipeline, as well as an updated calibration for the metallicity based upon the observation of additional standard stars. Spectra will be made available in a future release. The data release can be accessed via the RAVE webpage: http://www.rave-survey.org.


Visualizing electromagnetic fields in laser-produced counter-streaming plasma experiments for collisionless shock laboratory astrophysics

Physics of Plasmas 20 (2013)

NL Kugland, JS Ross, P-Y Chang, RP Drake, G Fiksel, DH Froula, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, M Grosskopf, C Huntington, M Koenig, Y Kuramitsu, C Kuranz, MC Levy, E Liang, D Martinez, J Meinecke, F Miniati, T Morita, A Pelka, C Plechaty, R Presura, A Ravasio, BA Remington, B Reville, DD Ryutov, Y Sakawa, A Spitkovsky, H Takabe, H-S Park

Collisionless shocks are often observed in fast-moving astrophysical plasmas, formed by non-classical viscosity that is believed to originate from collective electromagnetic fields driven by kinetic plasma instabilities. However, the development of small-scale plasma processes into large-scale structures, such as a collisionless shock, is not well understood. It is also unknown to what extent collisionless shocks contain macroscopic fields with a long coherence length. For these reasons, it is valuable to explore collisionless shock formation, including the growth and self-organization of fields, in laboratory plasmas. The experimental results presented here show at a glance with proton imaging how macroscopic fields can emerge from a system of supersonic counter-streaming plasmas produced at the OMEGA EP laser. Interpretation of these results, plans for additional measurements, and the difficulty of achieving truly collisionless conditions are discussed. Future experiments at the National Ignition Facility are expected to create fully formed collisionless shocks in plasmas with no pre-imposed magnetic field. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters

Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 88 (2013)

MG Aartsen, R Abbasi, Y Abdou, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, J Becker Tjus, K-H Becker, ML Benabderrahmane, S Benzvi, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, S Bohaichuk, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, L Brayeur, H-P Bretz, AM Brown, R Bruijn, J Brunner, M Carson, J Casey, M Casier, D Chirkin, A Christov, B Christy, K Clark, F Clevermann, S Coenders, S Cohen, DF Cowen, AH Cruz Silva, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, M Day, C De Clercq, S De Ridder, P Desiati, KD De Vries, M De With, T Deyoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dunkman, R Eagan, B Eberhardt, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, S Flis, A Franckowiak, K Frantzen, T Fuchs, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, G Golup, JG Gonzalez, JA Goodman, D Góra, DT Grandmont, D Grant, A Groß, C Ha, A Haj Ismail, P Hallen, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Heereman, D Heinen, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, R Hoffmann, A Homeier, K Hoshina, W Huelsnitz, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, J Jacobsen, K Jagielski, GS Japaridze, K Jero, O Jlelati, B Kaminsky, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, J Kiryluk, J Kläs, SR Klein, J-H Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, M Krasberg, K Krings, G Kroll, J Kunnen, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, H Landsman, MJ Larson, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, J Leute, J Lünemann, O Macías, J Madsen, G Maggi, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, F McNally, K Meagher, M Merck, T Meures, S Miarecki, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, L Mohrmann, T Montaruli, R Morse, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, H Niederhausen, SC Nowicki, DR Nygren, A Obertacke, S Odrowski, A Olivas, A Omairat, A O'Murchadha, L Paul, JA Pepper, C Pérez De Los Heros, C Pfendner, D Pieloth, E Pinat, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, P Redl, R Reimann, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, M Richman, B Riedel, JP Rodrigues, C Rott, T Ruhe, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, SM Saba, T Salameh, H-G Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, F Scheriau, T Schmidt, M Schmitz, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, A Schönwald, A Schukraft, L Schulte, O Schulz, D Seckel, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, R Shanidze, C Sheremata, MWE Smith, D Soldin, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, A Stasik, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stößl, EA Strahler, R Ström, GW Sullivan, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, G Tešić, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, E Unger, M Usner, S Vallecorsa, N Van Eijndhoven, A Van Overloop, J Van Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, M Vraeghe, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, C Weaver, M Wellons, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, DL Xu, XW Xu, JP Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, J Ziemann, S Zierke, M Zoll

We present the results of a first search for self-annihilating dark matter in nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters using a sample of high-energy neutrinos acquired in 339.8 days of live time during 2009/10 with the IceCube neutrino observatory in its 59-string configuration. The targets of interest include the Virgo and Coma galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy, and several dwarf galaxies. We obtain upper limits on the cross section as a function of the weakly interacting massive particle mass between 300 GeV and 100 TeV for the annihilation into bb̄, W+W-, τ+τ -, μ+μ-, and νν̄. A limit derived for the Virgo cluster, when assuming a large effect from subhalos, challenges the weakly interacting massive particle interpretation of a recently observed GeV positron excess in cosmic rays. © 2013 American Physical Society.


The IceCube Neutrino Observatory Part VI: Ice Properties, Reconstruction and Future Developments

ArXiv (2013)

I Collaboration, MG Aartsen, R Abbasi, Y Abdou, M Ackermann, J Adams, JA Aguilar, M Ahlers, D Altmann, J Auffenberg, X Bai, M Baker, SW Barwick, V Baum, R Bay, JJ Beatty, S Bechet, JB Tjus, KH Becker, M Bell, ML Benabderrahmane, S BenZvi, P Berghaus, D Berley, E Bernardini, A Bernhard, D Bertrand, DZ Besson, G Binder, D Bindig, M Bissok, E Blaufuss, J Blumenthal, DJ Boersma, S Bohaichuk, C Bohm, D Bose, S Böser, O Botner, L Brayeur, HP Bretz, AM Brown, R Bruijn, J Brunner, M Carson, J Casey, M Casier, D Chirkin, A Christov, B Christy, K Clark, F Clevermann, S Coenders, S Cohen, DF Cowen, AHC Silva, M Danninger, J Daughhetee, JC Davis, CD Clercq, SD Ridder, P Desiati, KDD Vries, MD With, T DeYoung, JC Díaz-Vélez, M Dunkman, R Eagan, B Eberhardt, J Eisch, RW Ellsworth, S Euler, PA Evenson, O Fadiran, AR Fazely, A Fedynitch, J Feintzeig, T Feusels, K Filimonov, C Finley, T Fischer-Wasels, S Flis, A Franckowiak, K Frantzen, T Fuchs, TK Gaisser, J Gallagher, L Gerhardt, L Gladstone, T Glüsenkamp, A Goldschmidt, G Golup, JG Gonzalez, JA Goodman, D Góra, DT Grandmont, D Grant, A Groß, C Ha, AH Ismail, P Hallen, A Hallgren, F Halzen, K Hanson, D Heereman, D Heinen, K Helbing, R Hellauer, S Hickford, GC Hill, KD Hoffman, R Hoffmann, A Homeier, K Hoshina, W Huelsnitz, PO Hulth, K Hultqvist, S Hussain, A Ishihara, E Jacobi, J Jacobsen, K Jagielski, GS Japaridze, K Jero, O Jlelati, B Kaminsky, A Kappes, T Karg, A Karle, JL Kelley, J Kiryluk, J Kläs, SR Klein, JH Köhne, G Kohnen, H Kolanoski, L Köpke, C Kopper, S Kopper, DJ Koskinen, M Kowalski, M Krasberg, K Krings, G Kroll, J Kunnen, N Kurahashi, T Kuwabara, M Labare, H Landsman, MJ Larson, M Lesiak-Bzdak, M Leuermann, J Leute, J Lünemann, J Madsen, G Maggi, R Maruyama, K Mase, HS Matis, F McNally, K Meagher, M Merck, P Mészáros, T Meures, S Miarecki, E Middell, N Milke, J Miller, L Mohrmann, T Montaruli, R Morse, R Nahnhauer, U Naumann, H Niederhausen, SC Nowicki, DR Nygren, A Obertacke, S Odrowski, A Olivas, M Olivo, A O'Murchadha, L Paul, JA Pepper, CPDL Heros, C Pfendner, D Pieloth, E Pinat, J Posselt, PB Price, GT Przybylski, L Rädel, M Rameez, K Rawlins, P Redl, R Reimann, E Resconi, W Rhode, M Ribordy, M Richman, B Riedel, JP Rodrigues, C Rott, T Ruhe, B Ruzybayev, D Ryckbosch, SM Saba, T Salameh, HG Sander, M Santander, S Sarkar, K Schatto, M Scheel, F Scheriau, T Schmidt, M Schmitz, S Schoenen, S Schöneberg, A Schönwald, A Schukraft, L Schulte, O Schulz, D Seckel, Y Sestayo, S Seunarine, R Shanidze, C Sheremata, MWE Smith, D Soldin, GM Spiczak, C Spiering, M Stamatikos, T Stanev, A Stasik, T Stezelberger, RG Stokstad, A Stößl, EA Strahler, R Ström, GW Sullivan, H Taavola, I Taboada, A Tamburro, A Tepe, S Ter-Antonyan, G Tešić, S Tilav, PA Toale, S Toscano, M Usner, DVD Drift, NV Eijndhoven, AV Overloop, JV Santen, M Vehring, M Voge, M Vraeghe, C Walck, T Waldenmaier, M Wallraff, R Wasserman, C Weaver, M Wellons, C Wendt, S Westerhoff, N Whitehorn, K Wiebe, CH Wiebusch, DR Williams, H Wissing, M Wolf, TR Wood, K Woschnagg, DL Xu, XW Xu, JP Yanez, G Yodh, S Yoshida, P Zarzhitsky, J Ziemann, S Zierke, M Zoll

Papers on ice properties, reconstruction and future developments submitted to the 33nd International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rio de Janeiro 2013) by the IceCube Collaboration.


The radial velocity experiment (RAVE): Third data release

Astronomical Journal 141 (2011)

A Siebert, MEK Williams, A Siviero, W Reid, C Boeche, M Steinmetz, J Fulbright, U Munari, T Zwitter, FG Watson, RFG Wyse, RS De Jong, H Enke, B Anguiano, D Burton, CJP Cass, K Fiegert, M Hartley, A Ritter, KS Russel, M Stupar, O Bienaymé, KC Freeman, G Gilmore, EK Grebel, A Helmi, JF Navarro, J Binney, J Bland-Hawthorn, R Campbell, B Famaey, O Gerhard, BK Gibson, G Matijevič, QA Parker, GM Seabroke, S Sharma, MC Smith, E Wylie-De Boer

We present the third data release of the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) which is the first milestone of the RAVE project, releasing the full pilot survey. The catalog contains 83,072 radial velocity measurements for 77,461 stars in the southern celestial hemisphere, as well as stellar parameters for 39,833 stars. This paper describes the content of the new release, the new processing pipeline, as well as an updated calibration for the metallicity based upon the observation of additional standard stars. Spectra will be made available in a future release. The data release can be accessed via the RAVE Web site. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Laboratory experiments on plasma jets in a magnetic field using high-power lasers

EPJ Web of Conferences 59 (2013)

K Nishio, Y Sakawa, Y Kuramitsu, T Morita, T Ide, M Kuwada, M Koga, T Kato, T Norimatsu, C Gregory, N Woolsey, C Murphy, G Gregori, K Schaar, A Diziere, M Koenig, A Pelka, S Wang, Q Dong, Y Li, H Takabe

The experiments to simulate astrophysical jet generation are performed using Gekko XII (GXII) HIPER laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering. In the experiments a fast plasma flow generated by shooting a CH plane (10 μm thickness) is observed at the rear side of the plane. By separating the focal spot of the main beams, a non-uniform plasma is generated. The non-uniform plasma flow in an external magnetic field (0.2∼0.3 T) perpendicular to the plasma is more collimated than that without the external magnetic field. The plasma β, the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressure, is ≠1, and the magnetic Reynolds number is ∼150 in the collimated plasma. It is considered that the magnetic field is distorted by the plasma flow and enhances the jet collimation. © Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013.


Diffusive shock acceleration at laser-driven shocks: Studying cosmic-ray accelerators in the laboratory

New Journal of Physics 15 (2013)

B Reville, AR Bell, G Gregori

The non-thermal particle spectra responsible for the emission from many astrophysical systems are thought to originate from shocks via a first order Fermi process otherwise known as diffusive shock acceleration. The same mechanism is also widely believed to be responsible for the production of high energy cosmic rays. With the growing interest in collisionless shock physics in laser produced plasmas, the possibility of reproducing and detecting shock acceleration in controlled laboratory experiments should be considered. The various experimental constraints that must be satisfied are reviewed. It is demonstrated that several currently operating laser facilities may fulfil the necessary criteria to confirm the occurrence of diffusive shock acceleration of electrons at laser produced shocks. Successful reproduction of Fermi acceleration in the laboratory could open a range of possibilities, providing insight into the complex plasma processes that occur near astrophysical sources of cosmic rays. © IOP Publishing and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Powering of cool filaments in cluster cores by buoyant bubbles - I. Qualitative model

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 436 (2013) 526-530

E Churazov, M Ruszkowski, A Schekochihin

Cool-core clusters (e.g. Perseus or M87) often possess a network of bright gaseous filaments, observed in radio, infrared, optical and X-ray bands. We propose that these filaments are powered by the reconnection of the magnetic field in the wakes of buoyant bubbles. Active galactic nucleus (AGN)-inflated bubbles of relativistic plasma rise buoyantly in the cluster atmosphere, stretching and amplifying the field in the wake to values of β = 8πPgas/B2 ~ 1. The field lines in thewake have opposite directions and are forced together as the bubble motion stretches the filament. This setup bears strong similarity to the coronal loops on the Sun or to the Earth's magnetotail. The reconnection process naturally explains both the required level of local dissipation rate in filaments and the overall luminosity of filaments. The original source of power for the filaments is the potential energy of buoyant bubbles, inflated by the central AGN. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Stellarators close to quasisymmetry

ArXiv (2013)

I Calvo, FI Parra, JL Velasco, JA Alonso

Rotation is favorable for confinement, but a stellarator can rotate at high speeds if and only if it is sufficiently close to quasisymmetry. This article investigates how close it needs to be. For a magnetic field $\mathbf{B} = \mathbf{B}_0 + \alpha \mathbf{B}_1$, where $\mathbf{B}_0$ is quasisymmetric, $\alpha\mathbf{B}_1$ is a deviation from quasisymmetry, and $\alpha\ll 1$, the stellarator can rotate at high velocities if $\alpha < \epsilon^{1/2}$, with $\epsilon$ the ion Larmor radius over the characteristic variation length of $\mathbf{B}_0$. The cases in which this result may break down are discussed. If the stellarator is sufficiently quasisymmetric in the above sense, the rotation profile, and equivalently, the long-wavelength radial electric field, are not set neoclassically; instead, they can be affected by turbulent transport. Their computation requires the $O(\epsilon^2)$ pieces of both the turbulent and the long-wavelength components of the distribution function. This article contains the first step towards a formulation to calculate the rotation profile by providing the equations determining the long-wavelength components of the $O(\epsilon^2)$ pieces.