We report on the observation of a significant deficit of cosmic rays from the direction of the Moon with the IceCube detector. The study of this "Moon shadow" is used to characterize the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the detector. The detection is based on data taken in two periods before the completion of the detector: between April 2008 and May 2009, when IceCube operated in a partial configuration with 40 detector strings deployed in the South Pole ice, and between May 2009 and May 2010 when the detector operated with 59 strings. Using two independent analysis methods, the Moon shadow has been observed to high significance (> 6 sigma) in both detector configurations. The observed location of the shadow center is within 0.2 degrees of its expected position when geomagnetic deflection effects are taken into account. This measurement validates the directional reconstruction capabilities of IceCube.
NATURE PHYSICS 10 (2014) 520-524
When a dark matter halo moves through a background of dark matter particles, self-interactions can lead to both deceleration and evaporation of the halo and thus shift its centroid relative to the collisionless stars and galaxies. We study the magnitude and time evolution of this shift for two classes of dark matter self-interactions, viz. frequent self-interactions with small momentum transfer (e.g. due to long-range interactions) and rare self-interactions with large momentum transfer (e.g. contact interactions), and find important differences between the two cases. We find that neither effect can be strong enough to completely separate the dark matter halo from the galaxies, if we impose conservative bounds on the self-interaction cross-section. The majority of both populations remain bound to the same gravitational potential and the peaks of their distributions are therefore always coincident. Consequently any apparent separation is mainly due to particles which are leaving the gravitational potential, so will be largest shortly after the collision but not observable in evolved systems. Nevertheless the fraction of collisions with large momentum transfer is an important characteristic of self-interactions, which can potentially be extracted from observational data and provide an important clue as to the nature of dark matter.
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 789 (2014) ARTN L29
Using analytic calculations, the effects of the edge flux surface shape and the toroidal current profile on the penetration of flux surface shaping are investigated in a tokamak. It is shown that the penetration of shaping is determined by the poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field on the surface. This fact is used to investigate how different flux surface shapes penetrate from the edge. Then, a technique to separate the effects of magnetic pressure and tension in the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented and used to calculate radial profiles of strong elongation for nearly constant current profiles. Lastly, it is shown that more hollow toroidal current profiles are significantly better at conveying shaping from the edge to the core.
Nuclear Fusion 54 (2014)
This paper presents a short overview of a series of review articles describing alternative approaches to ignition of fusion reactions in inertially confined plasmas. © 2014 IAEA, Vienna.
PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 56 (2014) ARTN 084001
Phys Rev Lett 112 (2014) 015001-
It is possible using current high-intensity laser facilities to reach the quantum radiation reaction regime for energetic electrons. An experiment using a wakefield accelerator to drive GeV electrons into a counterpropagating laser pulse would demonstrate the increase in the yield of high-energy photons caused by the stochastic nature of quantum synchrotron emission: we show that a beam of 10(9) 1 GeV electrons colliding with a 30 fs laser pulse of intensity 10(22) W cm(-2) will emit 6300 photons with energy greater than 700 MeV, 60× the number predicted by classical theory.
Intrinsic alignments are believed to be a major source of systematics for future generation of weak gravitational lensing surveys like Euclid or LSST. Direct measurements of the alignment of the projected light distribution of galaxies in wide field imaging data seem to agree on a contamination at a level of a few per cent of the shear correlation functions, although the amplitude of the effect depends on the population of galaxies considered. Given this dependency, it is difficult to use dark matter-only simulations as the sole resource to predict and control intrinsic alignments. We report here estimates on the level of intrinsic alignment in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN that could be a major source of systematic errors in weak gravitational lensing measurements. In particular, assuming that the spin of galaxies is a good proxy for their ellipticity, we show how those spins are spatially correlated and how they couple to the tidal field in which they are embedded. We also present theoretical calculations that illustrate and qualitatively explain the observed signals.
EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 74 (2014) ARTN 2938
The induced electric field in a tokamak drives a parallel electron current flow. In an inhomogeneous, finite beta plasma, when this electron flow is comparable to the ion thermal speed, the Alfven mode wave solutions of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic equation can become nearly purely growing kink modes. Using the new "low-flow" version of the gyrokinetic code GS2 developed for momentum transport studies [Barnes et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 055005], we are able to model the effect of the induced parallel electric field on the electron distribution to study the destabilizing influence of current on stability. We identify high mode number kink modes in GS2 simulations and make comparisons to analytical theory in sheared magnetic geometry. We demonstrate reassuring agreement with analytical results both in terms of parametric dependences of mode frequencies and growth rates, and regarding the radial mode structure.
Using the Horizon-AGN simulation we find a mass dependent spin orientation trend for galaxies: the spin of low-mass, rotation-dominated, blue, star-forming galaxies are preferentially aligned with their closest filament, whereas high-mass, velocity dispersion- supported, red quiescent galaxies tend to possess a spin perpendicular to these filaments. We explore the physical mechanisms driving galactic spin swings and quantify how much mergers and smooth accretion re-orient them relative to their host filaments and impact their shape. In particular, we analyze the effect of dispersion and morphology of galaxies and discuss potential tracers for prospective surveys.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 89 (2014)
A search for high-energy neutrinos was performed using data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory from May 2009 to May 2010, when the array was running in its 59-string configuration. The data sample was optimized to contain muon neutrino induced events with a background contamination of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder energy spectrum than conventional atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the zenith angle distribution differs for astrophysical and atmospheric signals. A global fit of the reconstructed energies and directions of observed events is performed, including possible neutrino flux contributions for an astrophysical signal and atmospheric backgrounds as well as systematic uncertainties of the experiment and theoretical predictions. The best fit yields an astrophysical signal flux for νμ+ν̄μ of E2·Φ(E)=0.25×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1, and a zero prompt component. Although the sensitivity of this analysis for astrophysical neutrinos surpasses the Waxman and Bahcall upper bound, the experimental limit at 90% confidence level is a factor of 1.5 above at a flux of E2·Φ(E)=1.44×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1. © 2014 American Physical Society.
A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. The amplification of the energy flux caused by a deviation of size $\epsilon$ is calculated and it is shown that the scaling with $\epsilon$ of the amplification factor can be as large as linear. In opposition to common wisdom, most of the transport is not due to particles trapped in ripple wells, but to the perturbed motion of particles trapped in the omnigeneous magnetic wells around their bounce points.
SCALING OF MAGNETO-QUANTUM-RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS: FROM LASER-PRODUCED PLASMAS TO ASTROPHYSICS
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 795 (2014) ARTN 59
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers (2014)
We report on the generation of bright multi-keV betatron X-ray radiation using a GeV laser wakefield accelerator and investigate the use of these X-rays for various imaging applications. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
NUCLEAR FUSION 54 (2014) ARTN 054004