Physical review letters 115 (2015) 081102-
Results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have recently provided compelling evidence for the existence of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux utilizing a dominantly Southern Hemisphere data set consisting primarily of ν(e) and ν(τ) charged-current and neutral-current (cascade) neutrino interactions. In the analysis presented here, a data sample of approximately 35,000 muon neutrinos from the Northern sky is extracted from data taken during 659.5 days of live time recorded between May 2010 and May 2012. While this sample is composed primarily of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions in Earth's atmosphere, the highest energy events are inconsistent with a hypothesis of solely terrestrial origin at 3.7σ significance. These neutrinos can, however, be explained by an astrophysical flux per neutrino flavor at a level of Φ(E(ν))=9.9(-3.4)(+3.9)×10(-19) GeV(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) s(-1)(E(ν)/100 TeV(-2), consistent with IceCube's Southern-Hemisphere-dominated result. Additionally, a fit for an astrophysical flux with an arbitrary spectral index is performed. We find a spectral index of 2.2(-0.2)(+0.2), which is also in good agreement with the Southern Hemisphere result.
Nature communications 6 (2015) 6839-
A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye-Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye-Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressed plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 451 (2015) 1366-1379
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 448 (2015) 3248-3264
JOURNAL OF PLASMA PHYSICS 81 (2015) ARTN 305810104
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 452 (2015) 2845-2850
NATURE PHOTONICS 9 (2015) 274-279
A COMBINED MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF THE HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICAL NEUTRINO FLUX MEASURED WITH ICECUBE
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 809 (2015) ARTN 98
ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS 66 (2015) 39-52
PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 57 (2015) ARTN 014014
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 22 (2015) ARTN 056307
Nature communications 6 (2015) 8905-
High-intensity lasers can be used to generate shockwaves, which have found applications in nuclear fusion, proton imaging, cancer therapies and materials science. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are one type of shockwave widely studied for applications involving ion acceleration. Here we show a novel mechanism for collisionless electrostatic shocks to heat small amounts of solid density matter to temperatures of ∼keV in tens of femtoseconds. Unusually, electrons play no direct role in the heating and it is the ions that determine the heating rate. Ions are heated due to an interplay between the electric field of the shock, the local density increase during the passage of the shock and collisions between different species of ion. In simulations, these factors combine to produce rapid, localized heating of the lighter ion species. Although the heated volume is modest, this would be one of the fastest heating mechanisms discovered if demonstrated in the laboratory.
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 446 (2015) 1820-1828
The Review of scientific instruments 86 (2015) 073308-
Calibration of three scintillators (EJ232Q, BC422Q, and EJ410) in a time-of-flight arrangement using a laser drive-neutron source is presented. The three plastic scintillator detectors were calibrated with gamma insensitive bubble detector spectrometers, which were absolutely calibrated over a wide range of neutron energies ranging from sub-MeV to 20 MeV. A typical set of data obtained simultaneously by the detectors is shown, measuring the neutron spectrum emitted from a petawatt laser irradiated thin foil.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 57 (2015)
© 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.We obtain a theory describing laminar shock-like structures in a collisionless plasma and examine the parameter limits, in terms of the ion sound Mach number and the electron/ion temperature ratio, within which these structures exist. The essential feature is the inclusion of finite ion temperature with the result that some ions are reflected from a potential ramp. This destroys the symmetry between upstream and downstream regions that would otherwise give the well-known ion solitary wave solution. We have shown earlier (Cairns et al 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 022112) that such structures may be relevant to problems such as the existence of strong, localized electric fields observed in laser compressed pellets and laser acceleration of ions. Here we present results on the way in which these structures may produce species separation in fusion targets and suggest that it may be possible to use shock ion acceleration for fast ignition.
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 451 (2015) 639-650
42nd European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2015 (2015)
ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets
Fusion Engineering and Design 100 (2015) C