Erratum: IceCube sensitivity for low-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae(Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011) 535 : A109 (DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117810))
Astronomy and Astrophysics 563 (2014)
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 437 (2014) 2802-2805
The Galactic cosmic ray spectrum is a remarkably straight power law. Our current understanding is that the dominant sources that accelerate cosmic rays up to the knee (3 × 1015 eV) or perhaps even the ankle (3 × 1018 eV), are young Galactic supernova remnants. In theory, however, there are various reasons why the spectrum may be different for different sources, and may not even be a power law if non-linear shock acceleration applies during the most efficient stages of acceleration.We show how the spectrum at the accelerator translates to the spectrum that makes up the escaping cosmic rays that replenish the Galactic pool of cosmic rays. We assume that cosmic ray confinement, and thus escape, is linked to the level of magnetic field amplification, and that the magnetic field is amplified by streaming cosmic rays according to the non-resonant hybrid or resonant instability. When a fixed fraction of the energy is transferred to cosmic rays, it turns out that a source spectrum that is flatter than E-2 will result in an E-2 escape spectrum, whereas a steeper source spectrum will result in an escape spectrum with equal steepening. This alleviates some of the concern that may arise from expected flat or concave cosmic ray spectra associated with non-linear shock modification. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
When a dark matter halo moves through a background of dark matter particles, self-interactions can lead to both deceleration and evaporation of the halo and thus shift its centroid relative to the collisionless stars and galaxies. We study the magnitude and time evolution of this shift for two classes of dark matter self-interactions, viz. frequent self-interactions with small momentum transfer (e.g. due to long-range interactions) and rare self-interactions with large momentum transfer (e.g. contact interactions), and find important differences between the two cases. We find that neither effect can be strong enough to completely separate the dark matter halo from the galaxies, if we impose conservative bounds on the self-interaction cross-section. The majority of both populations remain bound to the same gravitational potential and the peaks of their distributions are therefore always coincident. Consequently any apparent separation is mainly due to particles which are leaving the gravitational potential, so will be largest shortly after the collision but not observable in evolved systems. Nevertheless the fraction of collisions with large momentum transfer is an important characteristic of self-interactions, which can potentially be extracted from observational data and provide an important clue as to the nature of dark matter.
Supermassive black holes (BH) accrete gas from their surroundings and coalesce with companions during galaxy mergers, and both processes change the BH mass and spin. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies, either idealised or embedded within the cosmic web, we explore the effects of interstellar gas dynamics and external perturbations on BH spin evolution. All these physical quantities were evolved on-the-fly in a self-consistent manner. We use a `maximal' model to describe the turbulence induced by stellar feedback to highlight its impact on the angular momentum of the gas accreted by the BH. Periods of intense star formation are followed by phases where stellar feedback drives large-scale outflows and hot bubbles. We find that BH accretion is synchronised with star formation, as only when gas is cold and dense do both processes take place. During such periods, gas motion is dominated by consistent rotation. On the other hand, when stellar feedback becomes substantial, turbulent motion randomises gas angular momentum. However BH accretion is strongly suppressed in that case, as cold and dense gas is lacking. In our cosmological simulation, at very early times (z>6), the galactic disc has not yet settled and no preferred direction exists for the angular momentum of the accreted gas, so the BH spin remains low. As the gas settles into a disc (6>z>3), the BH spin then rapidly reaches its maximal value. At lower redshifts (z<3), even when galaxy mergers flip the direction of the angular momentum of the accreted gas, causing it to counter-rotate, the BH spin magnitude only decreases modestly and temporarily. Should this be a typical evolution scenario for BH, it potentially has dramatic consequences regarding their origin and assembly, as accretion on maximally spinning BH embedded in thin Shakura-Sunyaev disc is significantly reduced.
Using analytic calculations, the effects of the edge flux surface shape and the toroidal current profile on the penetration of flux surface shaping are investigated in a tokamak. It is shown that the penetration of shaping is determined by the poloidal variation of the poloidal magnetic field on the surface. This fact is used to investigate how different flux surface shapes penetrate from the edge. Then, a technique to separate the effects of magnetic pressure and tension in the Grad-Shafranov equation is presented and used to calculate radial profiles of strong elongation for nearly constant current profiles. Lastly, it is shown that more hollow toroidal current profiles are significantly better at conveying shaping from the edge to the core.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 89 (2014)
A search for high-energy neutrinos was performed using data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory from May 2009 to May 2010, when the array was running in its 59-string configuration. The data sample was optimized to contain muon neutrino induced events with a background contamination of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder energy spectrum than conventional atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the zenith angle distribution differs for astrophysical and atmospheric signals. A global fit of the reconstructed energies and directions of observed events is performed, including possible neutrino flux contributions for an astrophysical signal and atmospheric backgrounds as well as systematic uncertainties of the experiment and theoretical predictions. The best fit yields an astrophysical signal flux for νμ+ν̄μ of E2·Φ(E)=0.25×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1, and a zero prompt component. Although the sensitivity of this analysis for astrophysical neutrinos surpasses the Waxman and Bahcall upper bound, the experimental limit at 90% confidence level is a factor of 1.5 above at a flux of E2·Φ(E)=1.44×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1. © 2014 American Physical Society.
High energy conversion efficiency in laser-proton acceleration by controlling laser-energy deposition onto thin foil targets
Applied Physics Letters 104 (2014)
An all-optical approach to laser-proton acceleration enhancement is investigated using the simplest of target designs to demonstrate application-relevant levels of energy conversion efficiency between laser and protons. Controlled deposition of laser energy, in the form of a double-pulse temporal envelope, is investigated in combination with thin foil targets in which recirculation of laser-accelerated electrons can lead to optimal conditions for coupling laser drive energy into the proton beam. This approach is shown to deliver a substantial enhancement in the coupling of laser energy to 5-30 MeV protons, compared to single pulse irradiation, reaching a record high 15% conversion efficiency with a temporal separation of 1 ps between the two pulses and a 5 μm-thick Au foil. A 1D simulation code is used to support and explain the origin of the observation of an optimum pulse separation of ∼1 ps. © 2014 Author(s).
A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. The amplification of the energy flux caused by a deviation of size $\epsilon$ is calculated and it is shown that the scaling with $\epsilon$ of the amplification factor can be as large as linear. In opposition to common wisdom, most of the transport is not due to particles trapped in ripple wells, but to the perturbed motion of particles trapped in the omnigeneous magnetic wells around their bounce points.
Inboard and outboard radial electric field wells in the H- and I-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod and poloidal variations of impurity temperature
NUCLEAR FUSION 54 (2014) ARTN 083017
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 445 (2014) L46-L50
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90 (2014) ARTN 013104
Synchrotron radiation, pair production, and longitudinal electron motion during 10-100 PW laser solid interactions
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 21 (2014) ARTN 033108
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers (2014)
We report on the generation of bright multi-keV betatron X-ray radiation using a GeV laser wakefield accelerator and investigate the use of these X-rays for various imaging applications. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
Phase-space Lagrangian derivation of electrostatic gyrokinetics in general geometry (vol 53, 045001, 2011)
PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 56 (2014) ARTN 099501
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 431 (2013) 415-429
Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration to the knee in the spectrum at a few PeV is only possible if the magnetic field ahead of a supernova remnant (SNR) shock is strongly amplified by CRs escaping the SNR. A model formulated in terms of the electric charge carried by escaping CRs predicts the maximum CR energy and the energy spectrum of CRs released into the surrounding medium. We find that historical SNRs such as Cas A, Tycho and Kepler may be expanding too slowly to accelerate CRs to the knee at the present time. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Measuring fast electron spectra and laser absorption in relativistic laser-solid interactions using differential bremsstrahlung photon detectors.
Rev Sci Instrum 84 (2013) 083505-
A photon detector suitable for the measurement of bremsstrahlung spectra generated in relativistically intense laser-solid interactions is described. The Monte Carlo techniques used to extract the fast electron spectrum and laser energy absorbed into forward-going fast electrons are detailed. A relativistically intense laser-solid experiment using frequency doubled laser light is used to demonstrate the effective operation of the detector. The experimental data were interpreted using the 3-spatial-dimension Monte Carlo code MCNPX [D. Pelowitz, MCNPX User's Manual Version 2.6.0, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2008], and the fast electron temperature found to be 125 keV.
Sci Rep 2 (2012) 889-
Creating non-equilibrium states of matter with highly unequal electron and lattice temperatures (T(ele)≠T(ion)) allows unsurpassed insight into the dynamic coupling between electrons and ions through time-resolved energy relaxation measurements. Recent studies on low-temperature laser-heated graphite suggest a complex energy exchange when compared to other materials. To avoid problems related to surface preparation, crystal quality and poor understanding of the energy deposition and transport mechanisms, we apply a different energy deposition mechanism, via laser-accelerated protons, to isochorically and non-radiatively heat macroscopic graphite samples up to temperatures close to the melting threshold. Using time-resolved x ray diffraction, we show clear evidence of a very small electron-ion energy transfer, yielding approximately three times longer relaxation times than previously reported. This is indicative of the existence of an energy transfer bottleneck in non-equilibrium warm dense matter.
Physics of Plasmas 20 (2013)
We report on particle in cell simulations of energy transfer between a laser pump beam and a counter-propagating seed beam using the Brillouin scattering process in uniform plasma including collisions. The results presented show that the ion acoustic waves excited through naturally occurring Brillouin scattering of the pump field are preferentially damped without affecting the driven Brillouin scattering process resulting from the beating of the pump and seed fields together. We find that collisions, including the effects of Landau damping, allow for a more efficient transfer of energy between the laser beams, and a significant reduction in the amount of seed pre-pulse produced. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
FLASH hydrodynamic simulations of experiments to explore the generation of cosmological magnetic fields
High Energy Density Physics 9 (2013) 75-81
We report the results of FLASH hydrodynamic simulations of the experiments conducted by the University of Oxford High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics group and its collaborators at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation de Lasers Intenses (LULI). In these experiments, a long-pulse laser illuminates a target in a chamber filled with Argon gas, producing shock waves that generate magnetic fields via the Biermann battery mechanism. The simulations show that the result of the laser illuminating the target is a series of complex hydrodynamic phenomena. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Papers on point source searches submitted to the 33nd International Cosmic Ray Conference (Rio de Janeiro 2013) by the IceCube Collaboration.