SCALING OF MAGNETO-QUANTUM-RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS: FROM LASER-PRODUCED PLASMAS TO ASTROPHYSICS
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 795 (2014) ARTN 59
Local dependence of ion temperature gradient on magnetic configuration, rotational shear and turbulent heat flux in MAST
NUCLEAR FUSION 54 (2014) ARTN 042003
Accurate measurement of neutrino energies is essential to many of the scientific goals of large-volume neutrino telescopes. The fundamental observable in such detectors is the Cherenkov light produced by the transit through a medium of charged particles created in neutrino interactions. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the deposited energy, which is approximately equal to the neutrino energy for $\nu_e$ and $\nu_\mu$ charged-current interactions and can be used to set a lower bound on neutrino energies and to measure neutrino spectra statistically in other channels. Here we describe methods and performance of reconstructing charged-particle energies and topologies from the observed Cherenkov light yield, including techniques to measure the energies of uncontained muon tracks, achieving average uncertainties in electromagnetic-equivalent deposited energy of $\sim 15\%$ above 10 TeV.
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 781 (2014) ARTN L20
A large-scale hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, Horizon-AGN, is used to investigate the alignment between the spin of galaxies and the cosmic filaments above redshift 1.2. The analysis of more than 150 000 galaxies per time step in the redshift range 1.2<z<1.8 with morphological diversity shows that the spin of low-mass blue galaxies is preferentially aligned with their neighbouring filaments, while high-mass red galaxies tend to have a perpendicular spin. The reorientation of the spin of massive galaxies is provided by galaxy mergers, which are significant in their mass build-up. We find that the stellar mass transition from alignment to misalignment happens around 3.10^10 M_sun. Galaxies form in the vorticity-rich neighbourhood of filaments, and migrate towards the nodes of the cosmic web as they convert their orbital angular momentum into spin. The signature of this process can be traced to the properties of galaxies, as measured relative to the cosmic web. We argue that a strong source of feedback such as active galactic nuclei is mandatory to quench in situ star formation in massive galaxies and promote various morphologies. It allows mergers to play their key role by reducing post-merger gas inflows and, therefore, keeping spins misaligned with cosmic filaments.
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 21 (2014) ARTN 056302
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 437 (2014) 2802-2805
The Galactic cosmic ray spectrum is a remarkably straight power law. Our current understanding is that the dominant sources that accelerate cosmic rays up to the knee (3 × 1015 eV) or perhaps even the ankle (3 × 1018 eV), are young Galactic supernova remnants. In theory, however, there are various reasons why the spectrum may be different for different sources, and may not even be a power law if non-linear shock acceleration applies during the most efficient stages of acceleration.We show how the spectrum at the accelerator translates to the spectrum that makes up the escaping cosmic rays that replenish the Galactic pool of cosmic rays. We assume that cosmic ray confinement, and thus escape, is linked to the level of magnetic field amplification, and that the magnetic field is amplified by streaming cosmic rays according to the non-resonant hybrid or resonant instability. When a fixed fraction of the energy is transferred to cosmic rays, it turns out that a source spectrum that is flatter than E-2 will result in an E-2 escape spectrum, whereas a steeper source spectrum will result in an escape spectrum with equal steepening. This alleviates some of the concern that may arise from expected flat or concave cosmic ray spectra associated with non-linear shock modification. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers.
The Review of scientific instruments 85 (2014) 093303-
A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C(6+), O(8+), etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 440 (2014) 1153-1164
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters 447 (2014) L45-L49
© 2014 The Author. Slow dynamical changes in magnetic-field strength and invariance of the particles' magnetic moments generate ubiquitous pressure anisotropies in weakly collisional, magnetized astrophysical plasmas. This renders them unstable to fast, small-scale mirror and firehose instabilities, which are capable of exerting feedback on the macroscale dynamics of the system. By way of a new asymptotic theory of the early non-linear evolution of the mirror instability in a plasma subject to slow shearing or compression, we show that the instability does not saturate quasi-linearly at a steady, low-amplitude level. Instead, the trapping of particles in small-scale mirrors leads to non-linear secular growth of magnetic perturbations, δB/Bt2/3. Our theory explains recent collisionless simulation results, provides a prediction of the mirror evolution in weakly collisional plasmas and establishes a foundation for a theory of non-linear mirror dynamics with trapping, valid up to δB/B = O(1).
Intrinsic alignments are believed to be a major source of systematics for future generation of weak gravitational lensing surveys like Euclid or LSST. Direct measurements of the alignment of the projected light distribution of galaxies in wide field imaging data seem to agree on a contamination at a level of a few per cent of the shear correlation functions, although the amplitude of the effect depends on the population of galaxies considered. Given this dependency, it is difficult to use dark matter-only simulations as the sole resource to predict and control intrinsic alignments. We report here estimates on the level of intrinsic alignment in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN that could be a major source of systematic errors in weak gravitational lensing measurements. In particular, assuming that the spin of galaxies is a good proxy for their ellipticity, we show how those spins are spatially correlated and how they couple to the tidal field in which they are embedded. We also present theoretical calculations that illustrate and qualitatively explain the observed signals.
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 90 (2014) ARTN 013104
Synchrotron radiation, pair production, and longitudinal electron motion during 10-100 PW laser solid interactions
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 21 (2014) ARTN 033108
Phys Rev Lett 112 (2014) 015001-
It is possible using current high-intensity laser facilities to reach the quantum radiation reaction regime for energetic electrons. An experiment using a wakefield accelerator to drive GeV electrons into a counterpropagating laser pulse would demonstrate the increase in the yield of high-energy photons caused by the stochastic nature of quantum synchrotron emission: we show that a beam of 10(9) 1 GeV electrons colliding with a 30 fs laser pulse of intensity 10(22) W cm(-2) will emit 6300 photons with energy greater than 700 MeV, 60× the number predicted by classical theory.
AIP Conference Proceedings 1580 (2014) 398-401
The injection of LH waves for current drive into a tokamak changes the ion toroidal rotation. In Alcator C-Mod, the direction of the steady state rotation change due to LH waves depends on the plasma current and the density. The change in rotation can be estimated by balancing the external torque of lower hybrid waves with the turbulent radial transport of the momentum. For high plasma current, the turbulent pinch and diffusion of the injected counter-current momentum are sufficient to explain the rotation change. However, for low plasma current, the change in the the intrinsic momentum transport (residual stress) for a non-rotating state is required to explain the co-current rotation change. Accordingly, we investigate the intrinsic momentum transport for the non-rotating state when diamagnetic flow and ExB flow cancel each other. The change in the intrinsic momentum transport due to lower hybrid waves is significant when the plasma current is low, which may explain the rotation reversal for low plasma current. The effect of changed q (safety factor) profile by lower hybrid on the intrinsic momentum transport is estimated by gyrokinetics. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
The ion toroidal rotation in a tokamak consists of an $E\times B$ flow due to the radial electric field and a diamagnetic flow due to the radial pressure gradient. The turbulent pinch of toroidal angular momentum due to the Coriolis force studied in previous work is only applicable to the $E\times B$ flow. In this Letter, the momentum pinch for the rotation generated by the radial pressure gradient is calculated and is compared with the Coriolis pinch. This distinction is important for subsonic flows or the flow in the pedestal where the two types of flows are similar in size and opposite in direction. In the edge, the different pinches due to the opposite rotations can result in intrinsic momentum transport that gives significant rotation peaking.
Journal of Computational Physics 260 (2014) 273-285
In high-intensity (>1021 Wcm -2) laser-matter interactions gamma-ray photon emission by the electrons can strongly affect the electron's dynamics and copious numbers of electron-positron pairs can be produced by the emitted photons. We show how these processes can be included in simulations by coupling a Monte Carlo algorithm describing the emission to a particle-in-cell code. The Monte Carlo algorithm includes quantum corrections to the photon emission, which we show must be included if the pair production rate is to be correctly determined. The accuracy, convergence and energy conservation properties of the Monte Carlo algorithm are analysed in simple test problems. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 445 (2014) L46-L50
Models of magnetic field evolution and effective viscosity in weakly collisional extragalactic plasmas
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 440 (2014) 3226-3242