MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 449 (2015) 3479-3502
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 447 (2015) 2479-2496
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 806 (2015) ARTN 117
Observation of magnetic field generation via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows
NATURE PHYSICS 11 (2015) 173-176
EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 75 (2015) ARTN 20
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 450 (2015) 4184-4197
© 2015 The Authors. X-ray surface brightness fluctuations in the core of the Perseus Cluster are analysed, using deep observations with the Chandra observatory. The amplitude of gas density fluctuations on different scales is measured in a set of radial annuli. It varies from 7 to 12 per cent on scales of ~10-30 kpc within radii of 30-220 kpc from the cluster centre. Using a statistical linear relation between the observed amplitude of density fluctuations and predicted velocity, the characteristic velocity of gas motions on each scale is calculated. The typical amplitudes of the velocity outside the central 30 kpc region are 90-140 km s<sup>-1</sup> on ~20-30 kpc scales and 70-100 km s<sup>-1</sup> on smaller scales ~7-10 kpc. The velocity power spectrum (PS) is consistent with cascade of turbulence and its slope is in a broad agreement with the slope for canonical Kolmogorov turbulence. The gas clumping factor estimated from the PS of the density fluctuations is lower than 7-8 per cent for radii ~30-220 kpc from the centre, leading to a density bias of less than 3-4 per cent in the cluster core. Uncertainties of the analysis are examined and discussed. Future measurements of the gas velocities with the Astro-H, Athena and Smart-X observatories will directly measure the gas density-velocity perturbation relation and further reduce systematic uncertainties in this analysis.
PHYSICAL REVIEW SPECIAL TOPICS-ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS 18 (2015) ARTN 032801
PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 57 (2015) ARTN 075006
The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, but also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 10^12 Msun halo at z=2, which is the progenitor of al group of galaxies at z=0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z>3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled disc as well as the accumulation of dense cold gas in the vicinity of the BH and starves the central compact object. As the galaxy and its halo accumulate mass, they become able to confine the nuclear inflows provided by major mergers and the BH grows at a sustained near-to-Eddington accretion rate. We argue that this mechanism should be ubiquitous amongst low-mass galaxies, corresponding to galaxies with a stellar mass below <10^9 Msun in our simulations.
Feedback from supernovae is essential to understanding the self-regulation of star formation in galaxies. However, the efficacy of the process in a cosmological context remains unclear due to excessive radiative losses during the shock propagation. To better understand the impact of SN explosions on the evolution of galaxies, we perform a suite of high-resolution (12 pc), zoom-in cosmological simulations of a Milky Way-like galaxy at z=3 with adaptive mesh refinement. We find that SN explosions can efficiently regulate star formation, leading to the stellar mass and metallicity consistent with the observed mass-metallicity relation and stellar mass-halo mass relation at z~3. This is achieved by making three important changes to the classical feedback scheme: i) the different phases of SN blast waves are modelled directly by injecting radial momentum expected at each stage, ii) the realistic time delay of SNe, commencing at as early as 3 Myr, is required to disperse very dense gas before a runaway collapse sets in at the galaxy centre via mergers of gas clumps, and iii) a non-uniform density distribution of the ISM is taken into account below the computational grid scale for the cell in which SN explodes. The last condition is motivated by the fact that our simulations still do not resolve the detailed structure of a turbulent ISM in which the fast outflows can propagate along low-density channels. The simulated galaxy with the SN feedback model shows strong outflows, which carry approximately ten times larger mass than star formation rate, as well as smoothly rising circular velocity. Other feedback models that do not meet the three conditions form too many stars, producing a peaked rotation curve. Our results suggest that understanding the structure of the turbulent ISM may be crucial to assess the role of SN and other feedback processes in galaxy formation theory.
A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g., drift-wave turbulence driven by temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating ExB flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. A consistent theory is constructed in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wave-number space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also in contrast with the linear problem, in which it occurs at the finite rate equal to the Landau-damping rate). The ability of the free energy to stay in the low velocity moments of the distribution is facilitated by the "anti-phase-mixing" effect, whose presence in the nonlinear system is due to the stochastic version of the plasma echo (the advecting velocity couples the phase-mixing and anti-phase-mixing perturbations). The partitioning of the wave-number space between the (energetically dominant) region where this is the case and the region where linear phase mixing wins is governed by the "critical balance" between linear and nonlinear timescales (which for high Hermite moments splits into two thresholds, one demarcating the wave-number region where phase mixing predominates, the other where plasma echo does).
This document outlines a set of simplified models for dark matter and its interactions with Standard Model particles. It is intended to summarize the main characteristics that these simplified models have when applied to dark matter searches at the LHC, and to provide a number of useful expressions for reference. The list of models includes both s-channel and t-channel scenarios. For s-channel, spin-0 and spin-1 mediation is discussed, and also realizations where the Higgs particle provides a portal between the dark and visible sectors. The guiding principles underpinning the proposed simplified models are spelled out, and some suggestions for implementation are presented.
JOURNAL OF COSMOLOGY AND ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS (2015) ARTN 050
Journal of Plasma Physics 81 (2015)
© 2014 Cambridge University Press. A linearised kinetic equation describing electrostatic perturbations of a Maxwellian equilibrium in a weakly collisional plasma forced by a random source is considered. The problem is treated as a kinetic analogue of the Langevin equation and the corresponding fluctuation-dissipation relations are derived. The kinetic fluctuation-dissipation relation reduces to the standard fluid one in the regime where the Landau damping rate is small and the system has no real frequency; in this case the simplest possible Landau-fluid closure of the kinetic equation coincides with the standard Langevin equation. Phase mixing of density fluctuations and emergence of fine scales in velocity space is diagnosed as a constant flux of free energy in Hermite space; the fluctuation-dissipation relations for the perturbations of the distribution function are derived, in the form of a universal expression for the Hermite spectrum of the free energy. Finite-collisionality effects are included. This work is aimed at establishing the simplest fluctuation-dissipation relations for a kinetic plasma, clarifying the connection between Landau and Hermite-space formalisms, and setting a benchmark case for a study of phase mixing in turbulent plasmas.
Erratum: IceCube sensitivity for low-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae(Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011) 535 : A109 (DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117810))
Astronomy and Astrophysics 563 (2014)
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 21 (2014) ARTN 104506
Supermassive black holes (BH) accrete gas from their surroundings and coalesce with companions during galaxy mergers, and both processes change the BH mass and spin. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies, either idealised or embedded within the cosmic web, we explore the effects of interstellar gas dynamics and external perturbations on BH spin evolution. All these physical quantities were evolved on-the-fly in a self-consistent manner. We use a `maximal' model to describe the turbulence induced by stellar feedback to highlight its impact on the angular momentum of the gas accreted by the BH. Periods of intense star formation are followed by phases where stellar feedback drives large-scale outflows and hot bubbles. We find that BH accretion is synchronised with star formation, as only when gas is cold and dense do both processes take place. During such periods, gas motion is dominated by consistent rotation. On the other hand, when stellar feedback becomes substantial, turbulent motion randomises gas angular momentum. However BH accretion is strongly suppressed in that case, as cold and dense gas is lacking. In our cosmological simulation, at very early times (z>6), the galactic disc has not yet settled and no preferred direction exists for the angular momentum of the accreted gas, so the BH spin remains low. As the gas settles into a disc (6>z>3), the BH spin then rapidly reaches its maximal value. At lower redshifts (z<3), even when galaxy mergers flip the direction of the angular momentum of the accreted gas, causing it to counter-rotate, the BH spin magnitude only decreases modestly and temporarily. Should this be a typical evolution scenario for BH, it potentially has dramatic consequences regarding their origin and assembly, as accretion on maximally spinning BH embedded in thin Shakura-Sunyaev disc is significantly reduced.
Intrinsic alignments are believed to be a major source of systematics for future generation of weak gravitational lensing surveys like Euclid or LSST. Direct measurements of the alignment of the projected light distribution of galaxies in wide field imaging data seem to agree on a contamination at a level of a few per cent of the shear correlation functions, although the amplitude of the effect depends on the population of galaxies considered. Given this dependency, it is difficult to use dark matter-only simulations as the sole resource to predict and control intrinsic alignments. We report here estimates on the level of intrinsic alignment in the cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN that could be a major source of systematic errors in weak gravitational lensing measurements. In particular, assuming that the spin of galaxies is a good proxy for their ellipticity, we show how those spins are spatially correlated and how they couple to the tidal field in which they are embedded. We also present theoretical calculations that illustrate and qualitatively explain the observed signals.
A generic non-symmetric magnetic field does not confine magnetized charged particles for long times due to secular magnetic drifts. Stellarator magnetic fields should be omnigeneous (that is, designed such that the secular drifts vanish), but perfect omnigeneity is technically impossible. There always are small deviations from omnigeneity that necessarily have large gradients. The amplification of the energy flux caused by a deviation of size $\epsilon$ is calculated and it is shown that the scaling with $\epsilon$ of the amplification factor can be as large as linear. In opposition to common wisdom, most of the transport is not due to particles trapped in ripple wells, but to the perturbed motion of particles trapped in the omnigeneous magnetic wells around their bounce points.