MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 440 (2014) 1153-1164
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 442 (2014) L81-L84
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 781 (2014) ARTN L20
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 112 (2014) ARTN 205003
BRAZILIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS 44 (2014) 415-425
The radial flux of toroidal angular momentum is needed to determine tokamak intrinsic rotation profiles. Its computation requires knowledge of the gyrokinetic distribution functions and turbulent electrostatic potential to second-order in $\epsilon = \rho/L$, where $\rho$ is the ion Larmor radius and $L$ is the variation length of the magnetic field. In this article, a complete set of equations to calculate the radial transport of toroidal angular momentum in any tokamak is presented. In particular, the $O(\epsilon^2)$ equations for the turbulent components of the distribution functions and electrostatic potential are given for the first time without assuming that the poloidal magnetic field over the magnetic field strength is small.
We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) of the form f(J), so they depend on three integrals of motion and have triaxial velocity ellipsoids. The models, which are generalisations of Henon's isochrone sphere, have four dimensionless parameters, two determining the part of the DF that is even in L_z, and two determining the odd part of the DF (which determines the azimuthal velocity distribution). Outside their cores, the velocity ellipsoids of all models tend to point to the model's centre, and we argue that this behaviour is generic, so near the symmetry axis of a flattened model, the long axis of the velocity ellipsoid is naturally aligned with the symmetry axis and not perpendicular to it as in many published dynamical models of well-studied galaxies. By varying one of the DF's parameters, the intensity of rotation can be increased from zero up to a maximum value set by the requirement that the DF be non-negative. Since angle-action coordinates are easily computed for these models, they are ideally suited for perturbative treatments and stability analysis. They can also be used to choose initial conditions for an N-body model that starts in perfect equilibrium and to model observations of early-type galaxies. The modelling technique introduced here is readily extended to different radial density profiles, more complex kinematics, and multi-component systems. A number of important technical issues surrounding the determination of the models' observable properties are explained in two appendices.
The ion toroidal rotation in a tokamak consists of an $E\times B$ flow due to the radial electric field and a diamagnetic flow due to the radial pressure gradient. The turbulent pinch of toroidal angular momentum due to the Coriolis force studied in previous work is only applicable to the $E\times B$ flow. In this Letter, the momentum pinch for the rotation generated by the radial pressure gradient is calculated and is compared with the Coriolis pinch. This distinction is important for subsonic flows or the flow in the pedestal where the two types of flows are similar in size and opposite in direction. In the edge, the different pinches due to the opposite rotations can result in intrinsic momentum transport that gives significant rotation peaking.
Accurate measurement of neutrino energies is essential to many of the scientific goals of large-volume neutrino telescopes. The fundamental observable in such detectors is the Cherenkov light produced by the transit through a medium of charged particles created in neutrino interactions. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the deposited energy, which is approximately equal to the neutrino energy for $\nu_e$ and $\nu_\mu$ charged-current interactions and can be used to set a lower bound on neutrino energies and to measure neutrino spectra statistically in other channels. Here we describe methods and performance of reconstructing charged-particle energies and topologies from the observed Cherenkov light yield, including techniques to measure the energies of uncontained muon tracks, achieving average uncertainties in electromagnetic-equivalent deposited energy of $\sim 15\%$ above 10 TeV.
NUCLEAR FUSION 54 (2014) ARTN 083019
Physical review letters 113 (2014) 101101-
A search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2012 provided the first evidence for a high-energy neutrino flux of extraterrestrial origin. Results from an analysis using the same methods with a third year (2012-2013) of data from the complete IceCube detector are consistent with the previously reported astrophysical flux in the 100 TeV-PeV range at the level of 10(-8) GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 per flavor and reject a purely atmospheric explanation for the combined three-year data at 5.7σ. The data are consistent with expectations for equal fluxes of all three neutrino flavors and with isotropic arrival directions, suggesting either numerous or spatially extended sources. The three-year data set, with a live time of 988 days, contains a total of 37 neutrino candidate events with deposited energies ranging from 30 to 2000 TeV. The 2000-TeV event is the highest-energy neutrino interaction ever observed.
Synchrotron radiation, pair production, and longitudinal electron motion during 10-100 PW laser solid interactions
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 21 (2014) ARTN 033108
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 445 (2014) L46-L50
THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS DENSITY AND VELOCITY POWER SPECTRA IN GALAXY CLUSTERS: QUALITATIVE TREATMENT AND COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 788 (2014) ARTN L13
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 793 (2014) ARTN 51
PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION 56 (2014) ARTN 129501
Characterisation of deuterium spectra from laser driven multi-species sources by employing differentially filtered image plate detectors in Thomson spectrometers.
The Review of scientific instruments 85 (2014) 093303-
A novel method for characterising the full spectrum of deuteron ions emitted by laser driven multi-species ion sources is discussed. The procedure is based on using differential filtering over the detector of a Thompson parabola ion spectrometer, which enables discrimination of deuterium ions from heavier ion species with the same charge-to-mass ratio (such as C(6+), O(8+), etc.). Commonly used Fuji Image plates were used as detectors in the spectrometer, whose absolute response to deuterium ions over a wide range of energies was calibrated by using slotted CR-39 nuclear track detectors. A typical deuterium ion spectrum diagnosed in a recent experimental campaign is presented, which was produced from a thin deuterated plastic foil target irradiated by a high power laser.
We present numerical simulations of a 15 solar mass star in a suite of idealised environments in order to quantify the amount of energy transmitted to the interstellar medium (ISM). We include models of stellar winds, UV photoionisation and the subsequent supernova based on theoretical models and observations of stellar evolution. The system is simulated in 3D using RAMSES-RT, an Adaptive Mesh Refinement Radiation Hydrodynamics code. We find that stellar winds have a negligible impact on the system owing to their relatively low luminosity compared to the other processes. The main impact of photoionisation is to reduce the density of the medium into which the supernova explodes, reducing the rate of radiative cooling of the subsequent supernova. Finally, we present a grid of models quantifying the energy and momentum of the system that can be used to motivate simulations of feedback in the ISM unable to fully resolve the processes discussed in this work.
The intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes (by means of their angular momentum) and their cross-correlation with the surrounding dark matter tidal field are investigated using the 160 000, z=1.2 synthetic galaxies extracted from the high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. One- and two-point statistics of the spin of the stellar component are measured as a function of mass and colour. For the low-mass galaxies, this spin is locally aligned with the tidal field `filamentary' direction while, for the high-mass galaxies, it is perpendicular to both filaments and walls. The bluest galaxies of our synthetic catalog are more strongly correlated with the surrounding tidal field than the reddest galaxies, and this correlation extends up to 10 Mpc/h comoving distance. We also report a correlation of the projected ellipticities of blue, intermediate mass galaxies on a similar scale at a level of 10^(-4) which could be a concern for cosmic shear measurements. We do not report any measurable intrinsic alignments of the reddest galaxies of our sample. This work is a first step toward the use of very realistic catalog of synthetic galaxies to evaluate the contamination of weak lensing measurement by the intrinsic galactic alignments.