Investigation of the solid-liquid phase transition of carbon at 150 GPa with spectrally resolved X-ray scattering
High Energy Density Physics 14 (2015) 38-43
Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 57 (2015)
© 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd. We obtain a theory describing laminar shock-like structures in a collisionless plasma and examine the parameter limits, in terms of the ion sound Mach number and the electron/ion temperature ratio, within which these structures exist. The essential feature is the inclusion of finite ion temperature with the result that some ions are reflected from a potential ramp. This destroys the symmetry between upstream and downstream regions that would otherwise give the well-known ion solitary wave solution. We have shown earlier (Cairns et al 2014 Phys. Plasmas 21 022112) that such structures may be relevant to problems such as the existence of strong, localized electric fields observed in laser compressed pellets and laser acceleration of ions. Here we present results on the way in which these structures may produce species separation in fusion targets and suggest that it may be possible to use shock ion acceleration for fast ignition.
HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS 14 (2015) 1-5
Evidence of locally enhanced target heating due to instabilities of counter-streaming fast electron beams
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 22 (2015) ARTN 020701
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL 806 (2015) ARTN 243
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 449 (2015) 3479-3502
EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C 75 (2015) ARTN 20
Dark Matter Benchmark Models for Early LHC Run-2 Searches: Report of the ATLAS/CMS Dark Matter Forum
This document is the final report of the ATLAS-CMS Dark Matter Forum, a forum organized by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations with the participation of experts on theories of Dark Matter, to select a minimal basis set of dark matter simplified models that should support the design of the early LHC Run-2 searches. A prioritized, compact set of benchmark models is proposed, accompanied by studies of the parameter space of these models and a repository of generator implementations. This report also addresses how to apply the Effective Field Theory formalism for collider searches and present the results of such interpretations.
PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 22 (2015) ARTN 053102
A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g., drift-wave turbulence driven by temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating ExB flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. A consistent theory is constructed in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wave-number space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also in contrast with the linear problem, in which it occurs at the finite rate equal to the Landau-damping rate). The ability of the free energy to stay in the low velocity moments of the distribution is facilitated by the "anti-phase-mixing" effect, whose presence in the nonlinear system is due to the stochastic version of the plasma echo (the advecting velocity couples the phase-mixing and anti-phase-mixing perturbations). The partitioning of the wave-number space between the (energetically dominant) region where this is the case and the region where linear phase mixing wins is governed by the "critical balance" between linear and nonlinear timescales (which for high Hermite moments splits into two thresholds, one demarcating the wave-number region where phase mixing predominates, the other where plasma echo does).
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 452 (2015) 1502-1518
ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL LETTERS 805 (2015) ARTN L5
MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY 452 (2015) 2845-2850
Physical review letters 112 (2014) 105002-
We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ∼0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.
Multimessenger search for sources of gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos: Initial results for LIGO-Virgo and IceCube
PHYSICAL REVIEW D 90 (2014) UNSP 102002
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 372 (2014)
Advances in X-ray imaging techniques have been driven by advances in novel X-ray sources. The latest fourth-generation X-ray sources can boast large photon fluxes at unprecedented brightness. However, the large size of these facilities means that these sources are not available for everyday applications. With advances in laser plasma acceleration, electron beams can now be generated at energies comparable to those used in light sources, but in university-sized laboratories. By making use of the strong transverse focusing of plasma accelerators, bright sources of betatron radiation have been produced. Here, we demonstrate phase-contrast imaging of a biological sample for the first time by radiation generated by GeV electron beams produced by a laser accelerator. The work was performed using a greater than 300TW laser, which allowed the energy of the synchrotron source to be extended to the 10100 keV range. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology 89 (2014)
A search for high-energy neutrinos was performed using data collected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory from May 2009 to May 2010, when the array was running in its 59-string configuration. The data sample was optimized to contain muon neutrino induced events with a background contamination of atmospheric muons of less than 1%. These data, which are dominated by atmospheric neutrinos, are analyzed with a global likelihood fit to search for possible contributions of prompt atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos, neither of which have yet been identified. Such signals are expected to follow a harder energy spectrum than conventional atmospheric neutrinos. In addition, the zenith angle distribution differs for astrophysical and atmospheric signals. A global fit of the reconstructed energies and directions of observed events is performed, including possible neutrino flux contributions for an astrophysical signal and atmospheric backgrounds as well as systematic uncertainties of the experiment and theoretical predictions. The best fit yields an astrophysical signal flux for νμ+ν̄μ of E2·Φ(E)=0.25×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1, and a zero prompt component. Although the sensitivity of this analysis for astrophysical neutrinos surpasses the Waxman and Bahcall upper bound, the experimental limit at 90% confidence level is a factor of 1.5 above at a flux of E2·Φ(E)=1.44×10-8GeVcm-2s-1sr-1. © 2014 American Physical Society.