A reduced coupled-mode description for the electron-ion energy relaxation in dense matter

EPL 83 (2008)

G Gregori, DO Gericke

We present a simplified model for the electron-ion energy relaxation in dense two-temperature systems that includes the effects of coupled collective modes. It also extends the standard Spitzer result to both degenerate and strongly coupled systems. Starting from the general coupled-mode description, we are able to solve analytically for the temperature relaxation time in warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas. This was achieved by decoupling the electron-ion dynamics and by representing the ion response in terms of the mode frequencies. The presented reduced model allows for a fast description of temperature equilibration within hydrodynamic simulations and an easy comparison for experimental investigations. For warm dense matter, both fluid and solid, the model gives a slower electron-ion equilibration than predicted by the classical Spitzer result. Copyright © EPLA, 2008.

Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas


SH Glenzer, P Neumayer, T Doeppner, OL Landen, RW Lee, RJ Wallace, S Weber, HJ Lee, AL Kritcher, R Falcone, SP Regan, H Sawada, DD Meyerhofer, G Gregori, C Fortmann, V Schwarz, R Redmer

Bremsstrahlung and line spectroscopy of warm dense aluminum plasma heated by xuv free-electron-laser radiation

Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 78 (2008)

U Zastrau, C Fortmann, RR Fäustlin, LF Cao, T Döppner, S Düsterer, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, A Przystawik, P Radcliffe, H Reinholz, G Röpke, R Thiele, J Tiggesbäumker, NX Truong, S Toleikis, I Uschmann, A Wierling, T Tschentscher, E Förster, R Redmer

We report the creation of solid-density aluminum plasma using free-electron laser (FEL) radiation at 13.5 nm wavelength. Ultrashort pulses were focused on a bulk Al target, yielding an intensity of 2× 1014/cm2. The radiation emitted from the plasma was measured using an xuv spectrometer. Bremsstrahlung and line intensity ratios yield consistent electron temperatures of about 38 eV, supported by radiation hydrodynamics simulations. This shows that xuv FELs heat up plasmas volumetrically and homogeneously at warm-dense-matter conditions, which are accurately characterized by xuv spectroscopy. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation


HE Lorenzana, JF Belak, KS Bradley, EM Bringa, KS Budil, JU Cazamias, B El-Dasher, JA Hawreliak, J Hessler, K Kadau, DH Kalantar, JM McNaney, D Milathianaki, K Rosolankova, DC Swift, M Taravillo, TW Van Buuren, JS Wark, TD de la Rubia

Molecular dynamics simulations of the Debye-Waller effect in shocked copper

Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics 78 (2008)

WJ Murphy, A Higginbotham, JS Wark, N Park

We present an analysis of the directionally dependent x-ray structure factors (and, hence, intensities) predicted by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of statically compressed and shocked single crystals of copper, and comment on the feasibility of using experimentally measured intensities to infer temperature information. We further consider the behavior of the diffracted intensity from isentropically compressed samples. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

High-pressure nanocrystalline structure of a shock-compressed single crystal of iron

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 78 (2008) ARTN 220101

JA Hawreliak, DH Kalantar, JS Stoelken, BA Remington, HE Lorenzana, JS Wark

Direct observation of strong ion coupling in laser-driven shock-compressed targets

Physical Review Letters 99 (2007)

A Ravasio, G Gregori, A Benuzzi-Mounaix, J Daligault, A Delserieys, AY Faenov, B Loupias, N Ozaki, M Rabec Le Gloahec, TA Pikuz, D Riley, M Koenig

In this Letter we report on a near collective x-ray scattering experiment on shock-compressed targets. A highly coupled Al plasma was generated and probed by spectrally resolving an x-ray source forward scattered by the sample. A significant reduction in the intensity of the elastic scatter was observed, which we attribute to the formation of an incipient long-range order. This speculation is confirmed by x-ray scattering calculations accounting for both electron degeneracy and strong coupling effects. Measurements from rear side visible diagnostics are consistent with the plasma parameters inferred from x-ray scattering data. These results give the experimental evidence of the strongly coupled ionic dynamics in dense plasmas. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

The first target experiments on the national ignition facility

EUR PHYS J D 44 (2007) 273-281

OL Landen, SH Glenzer, DH Froula, EL Dewald, LJ Suter, MB Schneider, DE Hinkel, JC Fernandez, JL Kline, SR Goldman, DG Braun, PM Celliers, SJ Moon, HS Robey, NE Lanier, SG Glendinning, BE Blue, BH Wilde, OS Jones, J Schein, L Divol, DH Kalantar, KM Campbell, JP Holder, JW McDonald, C Niemann, AJ Mackinnon, GW Collins, DK Bradley, JH Eggert, DC Hicks, G Gregori, RK Kirkwood, BK Young, JM Foster, JF Hansen, TS Perry, DH Munro, HA Baldis, GP Grim, RF Heeter, MB Hegelich, DS Montgomery, GA Rochau, RE Olson, RE Turner, JB Workman, RL Berger, BI Cohen, WL Kruer, AB Langdon, SH Langer, NB Meezan, HA Rose, CH Still, EA Williams, ES Dodd, MJ Edwards, MC Monteil, RM Stevenson, BR Thomas, RF Coker, CR Magelssen, PA Rosen, PE Stry, D Woods, SV Weber, PE Young, S Alvarez, G Armstrong, R Bahr, JL Bourgade, D Bower, J Celeste, M Chrisp, S Compton, J Cox, C Constantin, R Costa, J Duncan, A Ellis, J Emig, C Gautier, A Greenwood, R Griffith, F Holdner, G Holtmeier, D Hargrove, T James, J Kamperschroer, J Kimbrough, M Landon, FD Lee, R Malone, M May, S Montelongo, J Moody, E Ng, A Nikitin, D Pellinen, K Piston, M Poole, V Rekow, M Rhodes, R Shepherd, S Shiromizu, D Voloshin, A Warrick, P Watts, F Weber, P Young, P Arnold, L Atherton, G Bardsley, R Bonanno, T Borger, M Bowers, R Bryant, S Buckman, S Burkhart, F Cooper, SN Dixit, G Erbert, DC Eder, RE Ehrlich, B Felker, J Fornes, G Frieders, S Gardner, C Gates, M Gonzalez, S Grace, T Hall, CA Haynam, G Heestand, MA Henesian, M Hermann, G Hermes, S Huber, K Jancaitis, S Johnson, B Kauffman, T Kelleher, T Kohut, AE Koniges, T Labiak, D Latray, A Lee, D Lund, S Mahavandi, KR Manes, C Marshall, J McBride, T McCarville, L McGrew, J Mcnapace, E Mertens, J Murray, J Neumann, A Newton, P Opsahl, E Padilla, T Parham, G Parrish, C Petty, M Polk, C Powell, I Reinbachs, R Rinnert, B Riordan, G Ross, V Robert, M Tobin, S Sailors, R Saunders, M Schmitt, M Shaw, M Singh, M Spaeth, A Stephens, G Tietbohl, J Tuck, BM Van Wonterghem, R Vidal, PJ Wegner, P Whitman, K Williams, K Winward, K Work, R Wallace, A Nobile, M Bono, B Day, J Elliott, D Hatch, H Louis, R Manzenares, D O'Brien, P Papin, T Pierce, G Rivera, J Ruppe, D Sandoval, D Schmidt, L Valdez, K Zapata, BJ MacGowan, MJ Eckart, WW Hsing, PT Springer, BA Hammel, EI Moses, GH Miller

A first set of shock timing, laser-plasma interaction, hohlraum energetics and hydrodynamic experiments have been performed using the first 4 beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density Physics (HEDP). In parallel, a robust set of optical and X-ray spectrometers, interferometer, calorimeters and imagers have been activated. The experiments have been undertaken with laser powers and energies of up to 8 TW and 17 kJ in flattop and shaped 1-9 ns pulses focused with various beam smoothing options. The experiments have demonstrated excellent agreement between measured and predicted laser-target coupling in foils and hohlraums, even when extended to a longer pulse regime unattainable at previous laser facilities, validated the predicted effects of beam smoothing oil intense laser beam propagation in long scale-length plasmas and begun to test 3D codes by extending the study of laser driven hydrodynamic jets to 3D geometries.

Derivation of the static structure factor in strongly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas for X-ray scattering studies

High Energy Density Physics 3 (2007) 99-108

G Gregori, A Ravasio, A Höll, SH Glenzer, SJ Rose

We present a fully analytical derivation of the static response function in strongly coupled and non-equilibrium plasmas. The model we are proposing is based on a linear response formalism coupled to a charged hard sphere reference for the ions. The electrons, instead, are treated using a local field correction which satisfies the compressibility sum rule at finite temperatures. The model is applied to calculate an effective ion mass that accounts for the self-energy correction of the free particle energy. We will discuss the implication of this approach in the interpretation of experimental results in X-ray scattering measurements from dense plasmas. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Simulating EXAFS patterns of shocked crystals

AIP Conf. Proc. 955 (2007) 1243-1246

A Higginbotham, RC Albers, TC Germann, BL Holian, K Kadau, PS Lomdahl, WJ Murphy, B Nagler, JS Wark

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on shocked polycrystalline iron have provided further evidence for the shock induced α - ε phase transition in iron. However, recent molecular dynamics investigation of this system has suggested the presence of fcc material in the shocked region. In this paper we will investigate the difficulties in simulating EXAFS signals from molecular dynamics data. We will aim to show that in the case of the shock induced α - ε transition EXAFS is insensitive to the type of close packing of the product phase. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Shock waves in polycrystalline iron

Physical Review Letters 98 (2007)

K Kadau, TC Germann, PS Lomdahl, RC Albers, JS Wark, A Higginbotham, BL Holian

The propagation of shock waves through polycrystalline iron is explored by large-scale atomistic simulations. For large enough shock strengths the passage of the wave causes the body-centered-cubic phase to transform into a close-packed phase with most structure being isotropic hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) and, depending on shock strength and grain orientation, some fraction of face-centered-cubic (fcc) structure. The simulated shock Hugoniot is compared to experiments. By calculating the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) directly from the atomic configurations, a comparison to experimental EXAFS measurements of nanosecond-laser shocks shows that the experimental data is consistent with such a phase transformation. However, the atomistically simulated EXAFS spectra also show that an experimental distinction between the hcp or fcc phase is not possible based on the spectra alone. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

Nanosecond x-Ray diffraction from polycrystalline and amorphous materials in a pinhole camera geometry suitable for laser shock compression experiments


J Hawreliak, HE Lorenzana, BA Remington, S Lukezic, JS Wark

Temperature sensitivity of Cu Kα imaging efficiency using a spherical Bragg reflecting crystal

Physics of Plasmas 14 (2007)

KU Akli, MH Key, HK Chung, SB Hansen, RR Freeman, MH Chen, G Gregori, S Hatchett, D Hey, N Izumi, J King, J Kuba, P Norreys, AJ MacKinnon, CD Murphy, R Snavely, RB Stephens, C Stoeckel, W Theobald, B Zhang

The interaction of a 75 J 10 ps, high intensity laser beam with low-mass, solid Cu targets is investigated. Two instruments were fielded as diagnostics of Cu K -shell emission from the targets: a single photon counting spectrometer provided the absolute Kα yield [C. Stoeckl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3705 (2004)] and a spherically bent Bragg crystal recorded 2D monochromatic images with a spatial resolution of 10 μm [J. A. Koch, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2130 (2003)]. Due to the shifting and broadening of the Kα spectral lines with increasing temperature, there is a temperature dependence of the crystal collection efficiency. This affects measurements of the spatial pattern of electron transport, and it provides a temperature diagnostic when cross calibrated against the single photon counting spectrometer. The experimental data showing changing collection efficiency are presented. The results are discussed in light of modeling of the temperature-dependent spectrum of Cu K -shell emission. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Diagnosing direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils with noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

Physics of Plasmas 14 (2007)

H Sawada, SP Regan, DD Meyerhofer, IV Igumenshchev, VN Goncharov, TR Boehly, R Epstein, TC Sangster, VA Smalyuk, B Yaakobi, G Gregori, SH Glenzer, OL Landen

The electron temperature (Te) and average ionization (Z) of nearly Fermi-degenerate, direct-drive, shock-heated, and compressed plastic planar foils were investigated using noncollective spectrally resolved x-ray scattering on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Plastic (CH) and Br-doped CH foils were driven with six beams, having an overlapped intensity of ∼1× 1014 W cm2 and generating ∼15 Mbar pressure in the foil. The plasma conditions of the foil predicted with a one-dimensional (1-D) hydrodynamics code are Te ∼10 eV, Z∼1, mass density ρ ∼4 g cm3, and electron density ne ∼3× 1023 cm-3. The uniformly compressed portion of the target was probed with 9.0-keV x rays from a Zn Heα backlighter created with 18 additional tightly focused beams. The x rays scattered at either 90° or 120° were dispersed with a Bragg crystal spectrometer and recorded with an x-ray framing camera. An examination of the scattered x-ray spectra reveals that an upper limit of Z∼2 and Te =20 eV are inferred from the spectral line shapes of the elastic Rayleigh and inelastic Compton components. Low average ionizations (i.e., Z<2) cannot be accurately diagnosed in this experiment due to the difficulties in distinguishing delocalized valence and free electrons. Trace amounts of Br in the CH foil (i.e., 2% atomic concentration) are shown to increase the sensitivity of the noncollective, spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to changes in the average ionization. The experimentally inferred electron temperatures are comparable to the 1-D predictions. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

Physical Review Letters 98 (2007) 065002 (4 pages)-

G Gregori, S. H. Glenzer, O.L. Landen, R. Redmer

Creation of hot dense matter in short-pulse laser-plasma interaction with tamped titanium foils

Physics of Plasmas 14 (2007)

SN Chen, G Gregori, PK Patel, H-K Chung, RG Evans, RR Freeman, EG Saiz, SH Glenzer, SB Hansen, FY Khattak, JA King, AJ Mackinnon, MM Notley, JR Pasley, D Riley, RB Stephens, RL Weber, SC Wilks, FN Beg

Dense titanium plasma has been heated to an electron temperature up to 1300 eV with a 100 TW, high intensity short-pulse laser. The experiments were conducted using Ti foils (5 μm thick) sandwiched between layers of either aluminum (1 or 2 μm thick) or plastic (2 μm thick) to prevent the effects of prepulse. Targets of two different sizes, i.e., 250 × 250 μm 2 and 1×1 mm2 were used. Spectral measurements of the Ti inner-shell emission, in the region between 4 and 5 keV, were taken from, the front-side (i.e., the laser illuminated side) of the target. The data show large shifts in the Kα emission from open-shell ions, suggesting bulk heating of the sample at near solid density, which was largest for reduced mass targets. Comparison with collisional radiative and 2D radiation hydrodynamics codes indicates a peak temperature of Te,peak= 1300 eV of solid titanium plasma in ∼0.2 μm thin layer. Higher bulk temperature (T e,bulk=100 eV) for aluminum tamped compared to CH tamped targets (Te,bulk=40 eV) was observed. A possible explanation for this difference is described whereby scattering due to the nuclear charge of the tamping material leads to modified electron transport behavior. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Wide angle crystal spectrometer for angularly and spectrally resolved X-ray scattering experiments.

Rev Sci Instrum 78 (2007) 095101-

EG Saiz, FY Khattak, G Gregori, S Bandyopadhyay, RJ Clarke, B Fell, RR Freeman, J Jeffries, D Jung, MM Notley, RL Weber, L van Woerkom, D Riley

A novel wide angle spectrometer has been implemented with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal coupled to an image plate. This spectrometer has allowed us to look at the energy resolved spectrum of scattered x rays from a dense plasma over a wide range of angles (approximately 30 degrees ) in a single shot. Using this spectrometer we were able to observe the temporal evolution of the angular scatter cross section from a laser shocked foil. A spectrometer of this type may also be useful in investigations of x-ray line transfer from laser-plasmas experiments.

Laboratory observation of secondary shock formation ahead of a strongly radiative blast wave

ASTROPHYS SPACE SCI 307 (2007) 219-225

JF Hansen, MJ Edwards, DH Froula, AD Edens, G Gregori, T Ditmire

We have previously reported the experimental discovery of a second shock forming ahead of a radiative shock propagating in Xe. The initial shock is spherical, radiative, with a high Mach number, and it sends a supersonic radiative heat wave far ahead of itself. The heat wave rapidly slows to a transonic regime and when its Mach number drops to two with respect to the downstream plasma, the heat wave drives a second shock ahead of itself to satisfy mass and momentum conservation in the heat wave reference frame. We now show experimental data from a range of mixtures of Xe and N-2, gradually changing the properties of the initial shock and the environment into which the shock moves and radiates (the radiative conductivity and the heat capacity). We have successfully observed second shock formation over the entire range from 100% Xe mass fraction to 100% N-2. The formation radius of the second shock as a function of Xe mass fraction is consistent with an analytical estimate.

Spectrally resolved X-ray scatter from laser-shock-driven plasmas

LASER PART BEAMS 25 (2007) 465-469

D Riley, FY Khattak, EG Saiz, G Gregori, S Bandyopadhyay, M Notley, D Neely, D Chambers, A Moore, A Comley

We report spectrally resolved X-ray scattering data from shock compressed foils illustrating the feasibility of X-ray Thomson scattering experiment on a sub-kilo joule laser system. Sandwich targets consisting of CH/Al/CH were shock compressed using similar to 1 ns laser pulses. Separate 270 ps laser pulses were used to generate an intense source of Ti-He-alpha (1s(2)-1s2p(1)P) radiation which was used as a probing source of 4.75 keV photons. The spectrum of scattered photons was recorded at a scattering angle of 82 degrees with a CCD fitted spectrometer using a PET crystal in von-Hamos geometry. Although spectral resolution was used to separate the scatter from any background, the resolution was limited by source broadening. The relative level of scatter at different times in the sample history was measured by varying the delay between the shock driving beams and the back-lighter beams. We have compared the scatter spectra with simulations based on two different models of the L-shell bound-free contribution.

Thomson scattering from near-solid density plasmas using soft X-ray free electron lasers

High Energy Density Physics 3 (2007) 120-130

A Höll, T Bornath, L Cao, T Döppner, S Düsterer, E Förster, C Fortmann, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, T Laarmann, K-H Meiwes-Broer, A Przystawik, P Radcliffe, R Redmer, H Reinholz, G Röpke, R Thiele, J Tiggesbäumker, S Toleikis, NX Truong, T Tschentscher, I Uschmann, U Zastrau

We discuss a collective Thomson scattering experiment at the VUV free electron laser facility at DESY (FLASH) to diagnose warm dense matter at near-solid density. The plasma region of interest marks the transition from an ideal plasma to a correlated and degenerate many-particle system and is of current interest, e.g., in ICF experiments or laboratory astrophysics. Plasma diagnosis of such plasmas is a longstanding issue which is addressed here using a pump-probe scattering experiment to reveal the collective electron plasma mode (plasmon) using the high-brilliance radiation to probe the plasma. Distinctive scattering features allow one to infer basic plasma properties. For plasmas in thermal equilibrium the electron density and temperature are determined from scattering off the plasmon mode. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.