Simulations of efficient Raman amplification into the multipetawatt regime

Nature Physics 7 (2011) 87-92

RMGM Trines, F Fíuza, RB Bingham, RA Fonseca, LO Silva, RA Cairns, PA Norreys

Contemporary high-power laser systems make use of solid-state laser technology to reach petawatt pulse powers. The breakdown threshold for optical components in these systems, however, demands metre-scale beams. Raman amplification of laser beams promises a breakthrough by the use of much smaller amplifying media, that is, millimetre-diameter plasmas, but so far only 60 GW peak powers have been obtained in the laboratory, far short of the desired multipetawatt regime. Here we show, through the first large-scale multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations of this process, that multipetawatt peak powers can be reached, but only in a narrow parameter window dictated by the growth of plasma instabilities. Raman amplification promises reduced cost and complexity of intense lasers, enabling much greater access to higher-intensity regimes for scientific and industrial applications. Furthermore, we show that this process scales to short wavelengths, enabling compression of X-ray free-electron laser pulses to attosecond duration. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

X-ray scattering as a probe for warm dense mixtures and high-pressure miscibility

EPL 94 (2011)

K Wünsch, J Vorberger, G Gregori, DO Gericke

We develop a new theoretical approach that demonstrates the abilities of elastic X-ray scattering to yield thermodynamic, structural, and mixing properties of dense matter with multiple ion species. The novel decomposition of the electron structure factor in multi-component systems provides the basis to study dense mixtures as found in giant gas planets or during inertial confinement fusion. We show that the scattering signal differs significantly between single species, microscopic mixtures, and phase-separated fluids. Thus, these different phases can be distinguished experimentally via elastic X-ray scattering. © 2011 Europhysics Letters Association.

Onset of Negative Dispersion in the One-Component Plasma


JP Mithen, J Daligault, G Gregori

Numerical simulation of plasma-based raman amplification of laser pulses to petawatt powers

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 39 (2011) 2622-2623

RMGM Trines, F Fíuza, RA Fonseca, LO Silva, RB Bingham, RA Cairns, PA Norreys

Contemporary high-power laser systems make use of solid-state laser technology to reach petawatt pulse powers. The breakdown threshold for optical components in these systems, however, demands beam diameters up to 1 m. Raman amplification of laser beams promises a breakthrough by the use of much smaller amplifying media, i.e., millimeter-diameter-wide plasmas. Through the first large-scale multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations of this process, we have identified the parameter regime where multipetawatt peak laser powers can be reached, while the influence of damaging laser-plasma instabilities is only minor. Snapshots of the probe laser pulse being amplified, generated using state-of-the-art visualization techniques, are presented. © 2006 IEEE.

Proton radiography of intense-laser-irradiated wire-attached cone targets

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 39 (2011) 2822-2823

T Yabuuchi, H Sawada, T Bartal, D Batani, LA Gizzi, M Key, AJ Mackinnon, HS McLean, PA Norreys, PK Patel, RB Stephens, C Spindloe, WG Theobald, M Wei, FN Beg

Measurements of extreme electrostatic and magnetic fields are of interest for the study of high-energy-density plasmas. Results of proton deflectometry of cone-wire targets that are of interest to fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion are presented. © 2006 IEEE.

Simulations of neon irradiated by intense X-ray laser radiation

High Energy Density Physics 7 (2011) 111-116

O Ciricosta, H Chung, R Lee, JS Wark

We present simulations of the charge states produced by the interaction of intense X-ray laser radiation with a neon gas. We model the results of a recent experiment (Young et al., Nature 466, 56 (2010)), where mJ pulses of X-rays, with photon energies ranging from 800 to 2000 eV and pulse lengths ranging from 70 to 340 fs were incident on neon atoms at intensities of up to 10 18 W cm -2. Simulations using an adapted version of the SCFLY collisional-radiative code, which included the effect of electron collisions and a simple self-consistent temperature model, result in charge state distributions that are in good agreement with the experimental data. We calculate the electron temperature of the system during the evolution of the plasma, and comment upon the role that collisions may play in determining the charge state distributions as a function of the neon ion number density. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Reply to "Comment on 'Free-free opacity in warm-dense aluminum'"

High Energy Density Physics 7 (2011) 40-42

SM Vinko, G Gregori, JS Wark

We reply to the comment by Iglesias [HEDP, XXX] regarding our implementation of a solid-state pseudopotential in a model for the calculation of the free--free opacity in warm-dense aluminum [HEDP 5(2009), 124-131]. Some further details are given describing the method used to determine the adjustable parameter in the pseudopotential and several important limitations are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

In-situ determination of dispersion and resolving power in simultaneous multiple-angle XUV spectroscopy

Journal of Instrumentation 6 (2011)

U Zastrau, V Hilbert, CRD Brown, TD Döppner, SL Dziarzhytski, E Förster, H Glenzer, S Göde, G Gregori, M Harmand, DC Hochhaus, T Laarmann, J Lee, KH Meiwes-Broer, PB Neumayer, A Przystawik, P Radcliffe, MF Schulz, S Skruszewicz, F Tavella, J Tiggesbäumker, S Toleikis, TG White

We report on the simultaneous determination of non-linear dispersion functions and resolving power of three flat-field XUV grating spectrometers. A moderate-intense short-pulse infrared laser is focused onto technical aluminum which is commonly present as part of the experimental setup. In the XUV wavelength range of 10-19 nm, the spectrometers are calibrated using Al-Mg plasma emission lines. This cross-calibration is performed in-situ in the very same setup as the actual main experiment. The results are in excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. We show that our method allows for precise relative and absolute calibration of three different XUV spectrometers. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

Ultrafast melting of carbon induced by intense proton beams

Physical Review Letters 105 (2010)

A Pelka, G Gregori, DO Gericke, J Vorberger, SH Glenzer, MM Günther, K Harres, RI Heathcote, AL Kritcher, NL Kugland, B Li, M Makita, JP Mithen, DJ Neely, C Niemann, A Otten, DR Riley, G Schaumann, MS Schollmeier, AN Tauschwitz, M Roth

Laser-produced proton beams have been used to achieve ultrafast volumetric heating of carbon samples at solid density. The isochoric melting of carbon was probed by a scattering of x rays from a secondary laser-produced plasma. From the scattering signal, we have deduced the fraction of the material that was melted by the inhomogeneous heating. The results are compared to different theoretical approaches for the equation of state which suggests modifications from standard models. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Static ion structure factor for dense plasmas: Semi-classical and ab initio calculations

High Energy Density Physics 6 (2010) 305-310

V Schwarz, BVD Holst, TH Bornath, C Fortmann, WD Kraeft, RH Thiele, RA Redmer, G Gregori, H Lee, TD Döppner, SH Glenzer

We calculate the static structure factor of dense multi-component plasmas. Large scale ab initio finite-temperature DFT molecular dynamics simulations are performed in order to cover the region where a consistent quantum treatment for the electrons is inevitable. Especially, the behavior at small wave numbers k can be inferred from the relation to the isothermal compressibility. Alternatively, the static structure factor is obtained by solving the integral equations for the pair correlation functions within the hypernetted chain (HNC) scheme. For this purpose we derive new effective two-particle quantum potentials for the interactions between the charge carriers from the full two-particle Slater sum by accounting for bound states. Comparison to the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations enables us to determine the short-range behavior of the effective electron-ion quantum potentials. Results for the static structure factor are presented for beryllium plasmas at solid density and at threefold compression. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Micron-scale fast electron filaments and recirculation determined from rear-side optical emission in high-intensity laser-solid interactions

New Journal of Physics 12 (2010)

C Bellei, SR Nagel, S Kar, A Henig, S Kneip, CAJ Palmer, A Sävert, L Willingale, DC Carroll, B Dromey, JS Green, K Markey, PT Simpson, RJ Clarke, H Löwe, DJ Neely, C Spindloe, MK Tolley, MCMC Kaluza, SPD Mangles, P McKenna, PA Norreys, J Schreiber, M Zepf, JR Davies, KM Krushelnick, Z Najmudin

The transport of relativistic electrons generated in the interaction of petawatt class lasers with solid targets has been studied through measurements of the second harmonic optical emission from their rear surface. The high degree of polarization of the emission indicates that it is predominantly optical transition radiation (TR). A halo that surrounds the main region of emission is also polarized and is attributed to the effect of electron recirculation. The variation of the polarization state and intensity of radiation with the angle of observation indicates that the emission of TR is highly directional and provides evidence for the presence of μm-size filaments. A brief discussion on the possible causes of such a fine electron beam structure is given. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

Observation of postsoliton expansion following laser propagation through an underdense plasma

Physical Review Letters 105 (2010)

G Sarri, DK Singh, JR Davies, F Fíuza, KL Lancaster, EL Clark, SMR Hassan, J Jiang, N Kageiwa, NC Lopes, AU Rehman, C Russo, RHH Scott, T Tanimoto, Z Najmudin, K Tanaka, M Tatarakis, M Borghesi, PA Norreys

The expansion of electromagnetic postsolitons emerging from the interaction of a 30? ps, 3×1018Wcm⊃-2 laser pulse with an underdense deuterium plasma has been observed up to 100? ps after the pulse propagation, when large numbers of postsolitons were seen to remain in the plasma. The temporal evolution of the postsolitons has been accurately characterized with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The observed expansion is compared to analytical models and three-dimensional particle-in-cell results, revealing a polarization dependence of the postsoliton dynamics. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Controlling implosion symmetry around a deuterium-tritium target

Science 327 (2010) 1208-1210

PA Norreys

Fusion power is a step closer with the demonstration of control over the extreme thermal radiation pressure created by high-power laser beams within a cavity.

The HiPER experimental road map

AIP Conference Proceedings 1209 (2010) 129-133

D Batani, SD Baton, J Badziak, JR Davies, LA Gizzi, L Hallo, PA Norreys, M Roth, JJ Santos, V Tickhoncuk, NC Woolsey

WP10 is one of the working packages of the HiPER project and it has the goal of addressing, in a systematic and programmatic way, some of the key experimental uncertainties on the way towards fast ignition (and shock ignition) in a perspective of risk reduction, so to contribute to the definition of the basic characteristics of the HiPER project. The paper describes the key points contained in the short term HiPER experimental road map, as well as the results of two first experiments performed in "HiPER dedicated time slots" in European Laser Facilities. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Plasma emission spectroscopy of solids irradiated by intense XUV pulses from a free electron laser

High Energy Density Physics 6 (2010) 109-112

TWJ Dzelzainis, J Chalupský, M Fajardo, RR Fäustlin, PA Heimann, V Hájková, L Juha, M Jurek, FY Khattak, MA Kozlová, J Krzywiński, R Lee, B Nagler, AJ Nelson, FB Rosmej, R Soberierski, S Toleikis, TH Tschentscher, SM Vinko, JS Wark, TJ Whitcher, DR Riley

The FLASH XUV-free electron laser has been used to irradiate solid samples at intensities of the order 1016 W cm-2 at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. The subsequent time integrated XUV emission was observed with a grating spectrometer. The electron temperature inferred from plasma line ratios was in the range 5-8 eV with electron density in the range 1021-1022 cm-3. These results are consistent with the saturation of absorption through bleaching of the L-edge by intense photo-absorption reported in an earlier publication. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

New developments in energy transfer and transport studies in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 52 (2010)

PA Norreys, JS Green, KL Lancaster, APL Robinson, RHH Scott, FN Pérez, HP Schlenvoight, SD Baton, S Hulin, B Vauzour, JJ Santos, DJ Adams, K Markey, B Ramakrishna, M Zepf, MN Quinn, X Yuan, P McKenna, J Schreiber, JR Davies, DP Higginson, FN Beg, CD Chen, T Ma, PK Patel

Two critical issues related to the success of fast ignition inertial fusion have been vigorously investigated in a co-ordinated campaign in the European Union and the United States. These are the divergence of the fast electron beam generated in intense, PW laser-plasma interactions and the fast electron energy transport with the use of high intensity contrast ratio laser pulses. Proof is presented that resistivity gradient-induced magnetic fields can guide fast electrons over significant distances in (initially) cold metallic targets. Comparison of experiments undertaken in both France and the United States suggests that an important factor in obtaining efficient coupling into dense plasma is the irradiation with high intensity contrast ratio laser pulses, rather than the colour of the laser pulse itself. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

The Vulcan 10 PW project

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 244 (2010)

C Hernandez-Gomez, SP Blake, OV Chekhlov, RJ Clarke, AM Dunne, M Galimberti, SJ Hancock, RI Heathcote, P Holligan, A Lyachev, P Matousek, IO Musgrave, DJ Neely, PA Norreys, IN Ross, Y Tang, TB Winstone, BE Wyborn, JL Collier

The aim of this project is to establish a 10 PW facility on the Vulcan laser system capable of being focussed to intensities of at least 10 23 Wcm-2 and integrate this into a flexible and unique user facility This paper will present progress made in Phase one developing the 10PW Front End as well as the concept for the new Vulcan 10 PW facility. The new facility will be configured in a unique way to maximise the scientific opportunities presented through a combination with the existing capabilities already established on Vulcan. This ground breaking development will open up a range of new scientific opportunities. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

A proposal for testing subcritical vacuum pair production with high power lasers

ArXiv (2010)

G Gregori, DB Blaschke, PP Rajeev, H Chen, RJ Clarke, T Huffman, CD Murphy, AV Prozorkevich, CD Roberts, G Röpke, SM Schmidt, SA Smolyansky, S Wilks, R Bingham

We present a proposal for testing the prediction of non-equilibrium quantum field theory below the Schwinger limit. The proposed experiments should be able to detect a measurable number of gamma rays resulting from the annihilation of pairs in the focal spot of two opposing high intensity laser beams. We discuss the dependence of the expected number of gamma rays with the laser parameters and compare with the estimated background level of gamma hits for realistic laser conditions.

Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 244 (2010)

M Roth, I Alber, V Bagnoud, CRD Brown, RJ Clarke, H Daido, JC Fernández, KA Flippo, SA Gaillard, CS Gauthier, SH Glenzer, G Gregori, MM Günther, K Harres, RI Heathcote, AL Kritcher, NL Kugland, SL Lepape, B Li, M Makita, JP Mithen, C Niemann, F Nürnberg, DT Offermann, A Otten, A Pelka, DR Riley, G Schaumann, MS Schollmeier, J Schütrumpf, M Tampo, A Tauschwitz, AN Tauschwitz

The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Hot electron generation and transport using Kα emission

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 244 (2010)

KU Akli, RB Stephens, M Key, T Bartal, FN Beg, SR Chawla, CD Chen, RJ Fedosejevs, RR Freeman, H Friesen, EM Giraldez, JS Green, D Hey, DP Higginson, JF Hund, LC Jarrott, GE Kemp, J King, A Kryger, KL Lancaster, SL Lepape, AJ Link, T Ma, AJ Mackinnon, AG MacPhee, HS McLean, CW Murphy, PA Norreys, VM Ovchinnikov, PK Patel, Y Ping, H Sawada, DW Schumacher, WG Theobald, Y Tsui, LD Van Woerkom, M Wei, BP Westover, T Yabuuchi

We have conducted experiments on both the Vulcan and Titan laser facilities to study hot electron generation and transport in the context of fast ignition. Cu wires attached to Al cones were used to investigate the effect on coupling efficiency of plasma surround and the pre-formed plasma inside the cone. We found that with thin cones 15% of laser energy is coupled to the 40μm diameter wire emulating a 40μm fast ignition spot. Thick cone walls, simulating plasma in fast ignition, reduce coupling by x4. An increase of pre-pulse level inside the cone by a factor of 50 reduces coupling by a factor of 3. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.