Publications associated with Biological Physics

Internalization and observation of fluorescent biomolecules in living microorganisms via electroporation.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE (2015)

L Aigrain, M Sustarsic, R Crawford, A Plochowietz, AN Kapanidis

The ability to study biomolecules in vivo is crucial for understanding their function in a biological context. One powerful approach involves fusing molecules of interest to fluorescent proteins such as GFP to study their expression, localization and function. However, GFP and its derivatives are significantly larger and less photostable than organic fluorophores generally used for in vitro experiments, and this can limit the scope of investigation. We recently introduced a straightforward, versatile and high-throughput method based on electroporation, allowing the internalization of biomolecules labeled with organic fluorophores into living microorganisms. Here we describe how to use electroporation to internalize labeled DNA fragments or proteins into Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiæ, how to quantify the number of internalized molecules using fluorescence microscopy, and how to quantify the viability of electroporated cells. Data can be acquired at the single-cell or single-molecule level using fluorescence or FRET. The possibility of internalizing non-labeled molecules that trigger a physiological observable response in vivo is also presented. Finally, strategies of optimization of the protocol for specific biological systems are discussed.

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