Publications associated with Advanced Functional Materials and Devices Group


Self-passivation of molecular n-type doping during air exposure using a highly efficient air-instable dopant

Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science (2013)

ML Tietze, F Wölzl, T Menke, A Fischer, M Riede, K Leo, B Lüssem

In contrast to p-dopants, highly efficient molecular n-dopants are prone to degradation in air due to their low ionization potentials, limiting the processing conditions of doped functional organic devices. In this contribution, we investigate the air-stability of pure films of the n-dopant tetrakis(1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]pyrimidinato)ditungsten(II) (W2(hpp)4) and of C60 layers doped by W2(hpp)4. We find that 1/3 of the initial conductivity of the doped C thin films can be restored by thermal annealing in vacuum after a drop by 5 orders of magnitude upon air exposure. Furthermore, we show by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and Seebeck measurements that the Fermi level shift toward the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of C remains after air exposure, clearly indicating a conservation of n-doping. We explain these findings by a down-shift of the W(hpp) energy levels upon charge-transfer to a host material with deeper lying energy-levels, facilitating a protection against oxidation in air. Consequently, the observed recovery of the conductivity can be understood in terms of a self-passivation of the molecular n-doping. Hence, an application of highly efficient n-doped thin films in functional organic devices handled even under ambient conditions during fabrication is feasible. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


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