Publications by Gianluca Gregori

Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

Scientific reports 6 (2016) 24283-

PM Kozlowski, BJ Crowley, DO Gericke, SP Regan, G Gregori

Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.

Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite.

Nature communications 7 (2016) 10970-

D Kraus, A Ravasio, M Gauthier, DO Gericke, J Vorberger, S Frydrych, J Helfrich, LB Fletcher, G Schaumann, B Nagler, B Barbrel, B Bachmann, EJ Gamboa, S Göde, E Granados, G Gregori, HJ Lee, P Neumayer, W Schumaker, T Döppner, RW Falcone, SH Glenzer, M Roth

The shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond has been of great scientific and technological interest since the discovery of microscopic diamonds in remnants of explosively driven graphite. Furthermore, shock synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite, a speculative hexagonal carbon polymorph with unique hardness, is expected to happen during violent meteor impacts. Here, we show unprecedented in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of diamond formation on nanosecond timescales by shock compression of pyrolytic as well as polycrystalline graphite to pressures from 19 GPa up to 228 GPa. While we observe the transition to diamond starting at 50 GPa for both pyrolytic and polycrystalline graphite, we also record the direct formation of lonsdaleite above 170 GPa for pyrolytic samples only. Our experiment provides new insights into the processes of the shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond and uniquely resolves the dynamics that explain the main natural occurrence of the lonsdaleite crystal structure being close to meteor impact sites.

A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources

Classical and Quantum Gravity 33 (2016)

G Gregori, MC Levy, MA Wadud, BJB Crowley, R Bingham

© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.

Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 688 (2016)

T Ishikawa, Y Sakawa, T Morita, Y Yamaura, Y Kuramitsu, T Moritaka, T Sano, R Shimoda, K Tomita, K Uchino, S Matsukiyo, A Mizuta, N Ohnishi, R Crowston, N Woolsey, H Doyle, G Gregori, M Koenig, C Michaut, A Pelka, D Yuan, Y Li, K Zhang, J Zhong, F Wang, H Takabe

© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.One of the important and interesting problems in astrophysics and plasma physics is collimation of plasma jets. The collimation mechanism, which causes a plasma flow to propagate a long distance, has not been understood in detail. We have been investigating a model experiment to simulate astrophysical plasma jets with an external magnetic field [Nishio et al., EPJ. Web of Conferences 59, 15005 (2013)]. The experiment was performed by using Gekko XII HIPER laser system at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. We shot CH plane targets (3 mm × 3 mm × 10 μm) and observed rear-side plasma flows. A collimated plasma flow or plasma jet was generated by separating focal spots of laser beams. In this report, we measured plasma jet structure without an external magnetic field with shadowgraphy, and simultaneously measured the local parameters of the plasma jet, i.e., electron density, electron and ion temperatures, charge state, and drift velocity, with collective Thomson scattering.

Spherical shock in the presence of an external magnetic field

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 688 (2016)

Y Kuramitsu, S Matsukiyo, S Isayama, D Harada, T Oyama, R Fujino, Y Sakawa, T Morita, Y Yamaura, T Ishikawa, T Moritaka, T Sano, K Tomita, R Shimoda, Y Sato, K Uchino, A Pelka, R Crowston, N Woolsey, G Gregori, M Koenig, DW Yuan, CL Yin, YT Li, K Zhang, JY Zhong, FL Wang, N Ohnishi, K Nagamine, H Yoneda, H Takabe

© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.We investigate spherical collisionless shocks in the presence of an external magnetic field. Spherical collisionless shocks are common resultant of interactions between a expanding plasma and a surrounding plasma, such as the solar wind, stellar winds, and supernova remnants. Anisotropies often observed in shock propagations and their emissions, and it is widely believed a magnetic field plays a major role. Since the local observations of magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas are not accessible, laboratory experiments provide unique capability to investigate such phenomena. We model the spherical shocks in the universe by irradiating a solid spherical target surrounded by a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. We present preliminary results obtained by shadowgraphy.

Proton imaging of an electrostatic field structure formed in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 688 (2016)

T Morita, NL Kugland, W Wan, R Crowston, RP Drake, F Fiuza, G Gregori, C Huntington, T Ishikawa, M Koenig, C Kuranz, MC Levy, D Martinez, J Meinecke, F Miniati, CD Murphy, A Pelka, C Plechaty, R Presura, N Quirós, BA Remington, B Reville, JS Ross, DD Ryutov, Y Sakawa, L Steele, H Takabe, Y Yamaura, N Woolsey, HS Park

© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.We report the measurements of electrostatic field structures associated with an electrostatic shock formed in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas with proton imaging. The thickness of the electrostatic structure is estimated from proton images with different proton kinetic energies from 4.7 MeV to 10.7 MeV. The width of the transition region is characterized by electron scale length in the laser-produced plasma, suggesting that the field structure is formed due to a collisionless electrostatic shock.

Dynamic X-ray diffraction observation of shocked solid iron up to 170 GPa

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016) 7745-7749

A Denoeud, N Ozaki, A Benuzzi-Mounaix, H Uranishi, Y Kondo, R Kodama, E Brambrink, A Ravasio, M Bocoum, JM Boudenne, M Harmand, F Guyot, S Mazevet, D Riley, M Makita, T Sano, Y Sakawa, Y Inubushi, G Gregori, M Koenig, G Morard

© 2016, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.Investigation of the iron phase diagram under high pressure and temperature is crucial for the determination of the composition of the cores of rocky planets and for better understanding the generation of planetary magnetic fields. Here we present X-ray diffraction results from laser-driven shock-compressed single-crystal and polycrystalline iron, indicating the presence of solid hexagonal close-packed iron up to pressure of at least 170 GPa along the principal Hugoniot, corresponding to a temperature of 4,150 K. This is confirmed by the agreement between the pressure obtained from the measurement of the iron volume in the sample and the inferred shock strength from velocimetry deductions. Results presented in this study are of the first importance regarding pure Fe phase diagram probed under dynamic compression and can be applied to study conditions that are relevant to Earth and super-Earth cores.

Theory of density fluctuations in strongly radiative plasmas

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 93 (2016) ARTN 033201

JE Cross, P Mabey, DO Gericke, G Gregori

Laboratory astrophysical collisionless shock experiments on Omega and NIF

Journal of Physics: Conference Series 688 (2016)

HS Park, JS Ross, CM Huntington, F Fiuza, D Ryutov, D Casey, RP Drake, G Fiksel, D Froula, G Gregori, NL Kugland, C Kuranz, MC Levy, CK Li, J Meinecke, T Morita, R Petrasso, C Plechaty, B Remington, Y Sakawa, A Spitkovsky, H Takabe, AB Zylstra

© Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.We are performing scaled astrophysics experiments on Omega and on NIF. Laser driven counter-streaming interpenetrating supersonic plasma flows can be studied to understand astrophysical electromagnetic plasma phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. In our Omega experiments, the counter-streaming flow plasma state is measured using Thomson scattering diagnostics, demonstrating the plasma flows are indeed super-sonic and in the collisionless regime. We observe a surprising additional electron and ion heating from ion drag force in the double flow experiments that are attributed to the ion drag force and electrostatic instabilities. [1] A proton probe is used to image the electric and magnetic fields. We observe unexpected large, stable and reproducible electromagnetic field structures that arise in the counter-streaming flows [2]. The Biermann battery magnetic field generated near the target plane, advected along the flows, and recompressed near the midplane explains the cause of such self-organizing field structures [3]. A D3He implosion proton probe image showed very clear filamentary structures; three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations and simulated proton radiography images indicate that these filamentary structures are generated by Weibel instabilities and that the magnetization level (ratio of magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the system) is ∼0.01 [4]. These findings have very high astrophysical relevance and significant implications. We expect to observe true collisionless shock formation when we use >100 kJ laser energy on NIF.

Model experiment of magnetic field amplification in laser-produced plasmas via the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

Physics of Plasmas 23 (2016)

Y Kuramitsu, N Ohnishi, Y Sakawa, T Morita, H Tanji, T Ide, K Nishio, CD Gregory, JN Waugh, N Booth, R Heathcote, C Murphy, G Gregori, J Smallcombe, C Barton, A Dizière, M Koenig, N Woolsey, Y Matsumoto, A Mizuta, T Sugiyama, S Matsukiyo, T Moritaka, T Sano, H Takabe

© 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.A model experiment of magnetic field amplification (MFA) via the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) in supernova remnants (SNRs) was performed using a high-power laser. In order to account for very-fast acceleration of cosmic rays observed in SNRs, it is considered that the magnetic field has to be amplified by orders of magnitude from its background level. A possible mechanism for the MFA in SNRs is stretching and mixing of the magnetic field via the RMI when shock waves pass through dense molecular clouds in interstellar media. In order to model the astrophysical phenomenon in laboratories, there are three necessary factors for the RMI to be operative: a shock wave, an external magnetic field, and density inhomogeneity. By irradiating a double-foil target with several laser beams with focal spot displacement under influence of an external magnetic field, shock waves were excited and passed through the density inhomogeneity. Radiative hydrodynamic simulations show that the RMI evolves as the density inhomogeneity is shocked, resulting in higher MFA.

Laboratory analogue of a supersonic accretion column in a binary star system.

Nature communications 7 (2016) ncomms11899-

JE Cross, G Gregori, JM Foster, P Graham, JM Bonnet-Bidaud, C Busschaert, N Charpentier, CN Danson, HW Doyle, RP Drake, J Fyrth, ET Gumbrell, M Koenig, C Krauland, CC Kuranz, B Loupias, C Michaut, M Mouchet, S Patankar, J Skidmore, C Spindloe, ER Tubman, N Woolsey, R Yurchak, É Falize

Astrophysical flows exhibit rich behaviour resulting from the interplay of different forms of energy-gravitational, thermal, magnetic and radiative. For magnetic cataclysmic variable stars, material from a late, main sequence star is pulled onto a highly magnetized (B>10 MG) white dwarf. The magnetic field is sufficiently large to direct the flow as an accretion column onto the poles of the white dwarf, a star subclass known as AM Herculis. A stationary radiative shock is expected to form 100-1,000 km above the surface of the white dwarf, far too small to be resolved with current telescopes. Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment showing the evolution of a reverse shock when both ionization and radiative losses are important. We find that the stand-off position of the shock agrees with radiation hydrodynamic simulations and is consistent, when scaled to AM Herculis star systems, with theoretical predictions.

Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 22 (2015) ARTN 056311

H-S Park, CM Huntington, F Fiuza, RP Drake, DH Froula, G Gregori, M Koenig, NL Kugland, CC Kuranz, DQ Lamb, MC Levy, CK Li, J Meinecke, T Morita, RD Petrasso, BB Pollock, BA Remington, HG Rinderknecht, M Rosenberg, JS Ross, DD Ryutov, Y Sakawa, A Spitkovsky, H Takabe, DP Turnbull, P Tzeferacos, SV Weber, AB Zylstra

FLASH MHD simulations of experiments that study shock-generated magnetic fields


P Tzeferacos, M Fatenejad, N Flocke, C Graziani, G Gregori, DQ Lamb, D Lee, J Meinecke, A Scopatz, K Weide

Characterization of x-ray lens for use in probing high energy density states of matter


P Mabey, NJ Hartley, HW Doyle, JE Cross, L Ceurvorst, A Savin, A Rigby, M Oliver, M Calvert, IJ Kim, D Riley, PA Norreys, CH Nam, DC Carroll, C Spindloe, G Gregori

Developed turbulence and nonlinear amplification of magnetic fields in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015) 8211-8215

J Meinecke, P Tzeferacos, A Bell, R Bingham, R Clarke, E Churazov, R Crowston, H Doyle, RP Drake, R Heathcote, M Koenig, Y Kuramitsu, C Kuranz, D Lee, M MacDonald, C Murphy, M Notley, HS Park, A Pelka, A Ravasio, B Reville, Y Sakawa, W Wan, N Woolsey, R Yurchak, F Miniati, A Schekochihin, D Lamb, G Gregori

The visible matter in the universe is turbulent and magnetized. Turbulence in galaxy clusters is produced by mergers and by jets of the central galaxies and believed responsible for the amplification of magnetic fields. We report on experiments looking at the collision of two laser-produced plasma clouds, mimicking, in the laboratory, a cluster merger event. By measuring the spectrum of the density fluctuations, we infer developed, Kolmogorov-like turbulence. From spectral line broadening, we estimate a level of turbulence consistent with turbulent heating balancing radiative cooling, as it likely does in galaxy clusters. We show that the magnetic field is amplified by turbulent motions, reaching a nonlinear regime that is a precursor to turbulent dynamo. Thus, our experiment provides a promising platform for understanding the structure of turbulence and the amplification of magnetic fields in the universe.

The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers


G Gregori, B Reville, F Miniati

Ultrafast electron kinetics in short pulse laser-driven dense hydrogen


U Zastrau, P Sperling, C Fortmann-Grote, A Becker, T Bornath, R Bredow, T Doeppner, T Fennel, LB Fletcher, E Foerster, S Goede, G Gregori, M Harmand, V Hilbert, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, T Ma, KH Meiwes-Broer, JP Mithen, CD Murphy, M Nakatsutsumi, P Neumayer, A Przystawik, S Skruszewicz, J Tiggesbaeumker, S Toleikis, TG White, SH Glenzer, R Redmer, T Tschentscher

Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum


NJ Hartley, P Belancourt, DA Chapman, T Doeppner, RP Drake, DO Gericke, SH Glenzer, D Khaghani, S LePape, T Ma, P Neumayer, A Pak, L Peters, S Richardson, J Vorberger, TG White, G Gregori

Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs.

Nature communications 6 (2015) 8742-

N Booth, AP Robinson, P Hakel, RJ Clarke, RJ Dance, D Doria, LA Gizzi, G Gregori, P Koester, L Labate, T Levato, B Li, M Makita, RC Mancini, J Pasley, PP Rajeev, D Riley, E Wagenaars, JN Waugh, NC Woolsey

Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. The inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

Laser-driven platform for generation and characterization of strong quasi-static magnetic fields


JJ Santos, M Bailly-Grandvaux, L Giuffrida, P Forestier-Colleoni, S Fujioka, Z Zhang, P Korneev, R Bouillaud, S Dorard, D Batani, M Chevrot, JE Cross, R Crowston, J-L Dubois, J Gazave, G Gregori, E d'Humieres, S Hulin, K Ishihara, S Kojima, E Loyez, J-R Marques, A Morace, P Nicolai, O Peyrusse, A Poye, D Raffestin, J Ribolzi, M Roth, G Schaumann, F Serres, VT Tikhonchuk, P Vacar, N Woolsey