Publications by Gianluca Gregori

Axion particle production in a laser-induced dynamical spacetime

Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics 777 (2018) 388-393

MA Wadud, B King, R Bingham, G Gregori

© 2017 The Authors We consider the dynamics of a charged particle (e.g., an electron) oscillating in a laser field in flat spacetime and describe it in terms of the variable mass metric. By applying Einstein's equivalence principle, we show that, after representing the electron motion in a time-dependent manner, the variable mass metric takes the form of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric. We quantize a pseudo-scalar field in this spacetime and derive the production rate of electrically neutral, spinless particles. We show that this approach can provide an alternative experimental method to axion searches.

A sensitive EUV Schwarzschild microscope for plasma studies with sub-micrometer resolution

Review of Scientific Instruments 89 (2018)

U Zastrau, C Rödel, M Nakatsutsumi, T Feigl, K Appel, B Chen, T Döppner, T Fennel, T Fiedler, LB Fletcher, E Förster, E Gamboa, DO Gericke, S Göde, C Grote-Fortmann, V Hilbert, L Kazak, T Laarmann, HJ Lee, P Mabey, F Martinez, KH Meiwes-Broer, H Pauer, M Perske, A Przystawik, S Roling, S Skruszewicz, M Shihab, J Tiggesbäumker, S Toleikis, M Wünsche, H Zacharias, SH Glenzer, G Gregori

© 2018 Author(s). We present an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope using a Schwarzschild objective which is optimized for single-shot sub-micrometer imaging of laser-plasma targets. The microscope has been designed and constructed for imaging the scattering from an EUV-heated solid-density hydrogen jet. Imaging of a cryogenic hydrogen target was demonstrated using single pulses of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) free-electron laser at a wavelength of 13.5 nm. In a single exposure, we observe a hydrogen jet with ice fragments with a spatial resolution in the sub-micrometer range. In situ EUV imaging is expected to enable novel experimental capabilities for warm dense matter studies of micrometer-sized samples in laser-plasma experiments.

Guiding of relativistic electron beams in dense matter by laser-driven magnetostatic fields

Nature Communications 9 (2018)

M Bailly-Grandvaux, JJ Santos, C Bellei, P Forestier-Colleoni, S Fujioka, L Giuffrida, JJ Honrubia, D Batani, R Bouillaud, M Chevrot, JE Cross, R Crowston, S Dorard, JL Dubois, M Ehret, G Gregori, S Hulin, S Kojima, E Loyez, JR Marquès, A Morace, P Nicolaï, M Roth, S Sakata, G Schaumann, F Serres, J Servel, VT Tikhonchuk, N Woolsey, Z Zhang

© 2017 The Author(s). Intense lasers interacting with dense targets accelerate relativistic electron beams, whichtransport part of the laser energy into the target depth. However, the overall laser-to-targetenergy coupling efficiency is impaired by the large divergence of the electron beam, intrinsicto the laser-plasma interaction. Here we demonstrate that an efficient guiding ofMeV electrons with about 30MA current in solid matter is obtained by imposing a laserdrivenlongitudinal magnetostatic field of 600 T. In the magnetized conditions the transportedenergy density and the peak background electron temperature at the 60-μm-thicktarget's rear surface rise by about a factor of five, as unfolded from benchmarked simulations.Such an improvement of energy-density flux through dense matter paves the ground foradvances in laser-driven intense sources of energetic particles and radiation, driving matter toextreme temperatures, reaching states relevant for planetary or stellar science as yet inaccessibleat the laboratory scale and achieving high-gain laser-driven thermonuclear fusion.

Transition from Collisional to Collisionless Regimes in Interpenetrating Plasma Flows on the National Ignition Facility.

Physical review letters 118 (2017) 185003-

JS Ross, DP Higginson, D Ryutov, F Fiuza, R Hatarik, CM Huntington, DH Kalantar, A Link, BB Pollock, BA Remington, HG Rinderknecht, GF Swadling, DP Turnbull, S Weber, S Wilks, DH Froula, MJ Rosenberg, T Morita, Y Sakawa, H Takabe, RP Drake, C Kuranz, G Gregori, J Meinecke, MC Levy, M Koenig, A Spitkovsky, RD Petrasso, CK Li, H Sio, B Lahmann, AB Zylstra, H-S Park

A study of the transition from collisional to collisionless plasma flows has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility using high Mach number (M>4) counterstreaming plasmas. In these experiments, CD-CD and CD-CH planar foils separated by 6-10 mm are irradiated with laser energies of 250 kJ per foil, generating ∼1000  km/s plasma flows. Varying the foil separation distance scales the ion density and average bulk velocity and, therefore, the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path, at the interaction region at the midplane. The characteristics of the flow interaction have been inferred from the neutrons and protons generated by deuteron-deuteron interactions and by x-ray emission from the hot, interpenetrating, and interacting plasmas. A localized burst of neutrons and bright x-ray emission near the midpoint of the counterstreaming flows was observed, suggesting strong heating and the initial stages of shock formation. As the separation of the CD-CH foils increases we observe enhanced neutron production compared to particle-in-cell simulations that include Coulomb collisions, but do not include collective collisionless plasma instabilities. The observed plasma heating and enhanced neutron production is consistent with the initial stages of collisionless shock formation, mediated by the Weibel filamentation instability.

Magnetic field production via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 24 (2017) ARTN 041410

CM Huntington, MJ-E Manuel, JS Ross, SC Wilks, F Fiuza, HG Rinderknecht, H-S Park, G Gregori, DP Higginson, J Park, BB Pollock, BA Remington, DD Ryutov, C Ruyer, Y Sakawa, H Sio, A Spitkovsky, GF Swadling, H Takabe, AB Zylstra

Interaction of a highly radiative shock with a solid obstacle

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 24 (2017) ARTN 082707

M Koenig, T Michel, R Yurchak, C Michaut, B Albertazzi, S Laffite, E Falize, LVB Som, Y Sakawa, T Sano, Y Hara, T Morita, Y Kuramitsu, P Barroso, A Pelka, G Gregori, R Kodama, N Ozaki, D Lamb, P Tzeferacos

Time evolution and asymmetry of a laser produced blast wave

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 24 (2017) ARTN 103124

ER Tubman, RHH Scott, HW Doyle, J Meinecke, H Ahmed, RAB Alraddadi, R Bolis, JE Cross, R Crowston, D Doria, D Lamb, B Reville, APL Robinson, P Tzeferacos, M Borghesi, G Gregori, NC Woolsey

Magneto-optic probe measurements in low density-supersonic jets


M Oliver, T White, P Maybe, M Kuehn-Kauffeldt, L Dohl, R Bingham, R Clarke, P Graham, R Heathcote, M Koenig, Y Kuramitsu, DQ Lamb, J Meinecke, T Michel, F Miniati, M Notley, B Reville, S Sarkar, Y Sakawa, AA Schekochihin, P Tzeferacos, N Woolsey, H-S Park, G Gregori

Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 24 (2017) ARTN 041404

P Tzeferacos, A Rigby, A Bott, AR Bell, R Bingham, A Casner, F Cattaneo, EM Churazov, J Emig, N Flocke, F Fiuza, CB Forest, J Foster, C Graziani, J Katz, M Koenig, C-K Li, J Meinecke, R Petrasso, H-S Park, BA Remington, JS Ross, D Ryu, D Ryutov, K Weide, TG White, B Reville, F Miniati, AA Schekochihin, DH Froula, G Gregori, DQ Lamb

A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics.

Nature communications 8 (2017) 14125-

P Mabey, S Richardson, TG White, LB Fletcher, SH Glenzer, NJ Hartley, J Vorberger, DO Gericke, G Gregori

The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ion modes and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. Our results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas.

Identifying deformation mechanisms in molecular dynamics simulations of laser shocked matter


TG White, A Tikku, MFA Silva, G Gregori, A Higginbotham, DE Eakins

Thomson scattering measurement of a collimated plasma jet generated by a high-power laser system


T Ishikawa, Y Sakawa, T Morita, Y Yamaura, Y Kuramitsu, T Moritaka, T Sano, R Shimoda, K Tomita, K Uchino, S Matsukiyo, A Mizuta, N Ohnishi, R Crowston, N Woolsey, H Doyle, G Gregori, M Koenig, C Michaut, A Pelka, D Yuan, Y Li, K Zhang, J Zhong, F Wang, H Takabe, IOP

Spherical shock in the presence of an external magnetic field


Y Kuramitsu, S Matsukiyo, S Isayama, D Harada, T Oyama, R Fujino, Y Sakawa, T Morita, Y Yamaura, T Ishikawa, T Moritaka, T Sano, K Tomita, R Shimoda, Y Sato, K Uchino, A Pelka, R Crowston, N Woolsey, G Gregori, M Koenig, DW Yuan, CL Yin, YT Li, K Zhang, JY Zhong, FL Wang, N Ohnishi, K Nagamine, H Yoneda, H Takabe, IOP

Laboratory astrophysical collisionless shock experiments on Omega and NIF


H-S Park, JS Ross, CM Huntington, F Fiuza, D Ryutov, D Casey, RP Drake, G Fiksel, D Froula, G Gregori, NL Kugland, C Kuranz, MC Levy, CK Li, J Meinecke, T Morita, R Petrasso, C Plechaty, B Remington, Y Sakawa, A Spitkovsky, H Takabe, AB Zylstra, IOP

Proton imaging of an electrostatic field structure formed in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas


T Morita, NL Kugland, W Wan, R Crowston, RP Drake, F Fiuza, G Gregori, C Huntington, T Ishikawa, M Koenig, C Kuranz, MC Levy, D Martinez, J Meinecke, F Miniati, CD Murphy, A Pelka, C Plechaty, R Presura, N Quiros, BA Remington, B Reville, JS Ross, DD Ryutov, Y Sakawa, L Steele, H Takabe, Y Yamaura, N Woolsey, H-S Park, IOP

A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources


G Gregori, MC Levy, MA Wadud, BJB Crowley, R Bingham

Short-pulse laser-driven x-ray radiography


E Brambrink, S Baton, M Koenig, R Yurchak, N Bidaut, B Albertazzi, JE Cross, G Gregori, A Rigby, E Falize, A Pelka, F Kroll, S Pikuz, Y Sakawa, N Ozaki, C Kuranz, M Manuel, C Li, P Tzeferacos, D Lamb

Nanosecond formation of diamond and lonsdaleite by shock compression of graphite.

Nature communications 7 (2016) 10970-

D Kraus, A Ravasio, M Gauthier, DO Gericke, J Vorberger, S Frydrych, J Helfrich, LB Fletcher, G Schaumann, B Nagler, B Barbrel, B Bachmann, EJ Gamboa, S Göde, E Granados, G Gregori, HJ Lee, P Neumayer, W Schumaker, T Döppner, RW Falcone, SH Glenzer, M Roth

The shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond has been of great scientific and technological interest since the discovery of microscopic diamonds in remnants of explosively driven graphite. Furthermore, shock synthesis of diamond and lonsdaleite, a speculative hexagonal carbon polymorph with unique hardness, is expected to happen during violent meteor impacts. Here, we show unprecedented in situ X-ray diffraction measurements of diamond formation on nanosecond timescales by shock compression of pyrolytic as well as polycrystalline graphite to pressures from 19 GPa up to 228 GPa. While we observe the transition to diamond starting at 50 GPa for both pyrolytic and polycrystalline graphite, we also record the direct formation of lonsdaleite above 170 GPa for pyrolytic samples only. Our experiment provides new insights into the processes of the shock-induced transition from graphite to diamond and uniquely resolves the dynamics that explain the main natural occurrence of the lonsdaleite crystal structure being close to meteor impact sites.

Theory of density fluctuations in strongly radiative plasmas.

Physical review. E 93 (2016) 033201-

JE Cross, P Mabey, DO Gericke, G Gregori

Derivation of the dynamic structure factor, an important parameter linking experimental and theoretical work in dense plasmas, is possible starting from hydrodynamic equations. Here we obtain, by modifying the governing hydrodynamic equations, a new form of the dynamic structure factor which includes radiative terms. The inclusion of such terms has an effect on the structure factor at high temperatures, which suggests that its effect must be taken into consideration in such regimes.

Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.

Scientific Reports 6 (2016) 24283-

PM Kozlowski, BJB Crowley, DO Gericke, SP Regan, G Gregori

Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.